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The different kinds of pantomime practised in France and England in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries had similar roots in eighteenth-century and earlier illegitimate theatre, which, at least officially, had been required to be wordless, and had often featured clowns.

As the restrictions on the illegitimate theatre were progressively relaxed, French pantomime, claiming descent from Gaspard Deburau, took its aesthetic dominant from the mime, whereas English, epitomised by Joseph Grimaldi, found its in the clown. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, , p. Jacobs, Theatre to Cinema: Oxford University Press, , pp. Jelgerhuis, Theoretische Lessen over de gesticulatie en mimiek Amsterdam: Hakkert, , p.

Cotta, , p. University of California Press, , esp. Dover, , p. Story, Style, and Filmmaking, Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press, , p. But the development of cinematic acting in the s cannot be reduced to a single evolutionary line. More generally, in pictorialism villains have broader gestures than heroes. Apart from the pantomime manual which had the good fortune, for later commentators, to be translated into English many years later , Aubert was the author of two volumes of pantomime plays, but, as far as I know, none of these were part of the standard mime repertory of the period.

The radically different assessments we have seen in contemporary discussions of mime in theatre and film and in ballet, as we shall see below can be largely accounted for if we distinguish what part of mime acting the commentators are discussing. Largely but not wholly. Thompson, The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to London: Routledge, , pp. Revue et gazette musicale 22 October Mime had a place in variety theatre in other European countries and the USA.

Librairie Fischbacher, , p. Hugounet, La Musique et la pantomime Paris: Hugounet also edited a special number of the magazine La Plume on pantomime: Raise both arms through 2nd position.

Bend forearms inwards and allow them to cross chest. Both hands come to rest with the fingertips just below and inside opposite shoulders. Traditionally the R[ight] hand is nearest the heart.

Le Mime de la belle époque Paris: Georges Girard, , p. Letter to Théâtra 13 May , cit. See for example R.

Hennuyer, , p. For this tradition, see J. Dorcy, The Mime New York: This kind of mime was, however, part of English and American clowning, particularly that used in the variety theatre as opposed to the circus, and as such found its way into slapstick comedy in American cinema. It may be that French mimes learnt it from Chaplin and Keaton as much as from any native tradition. Le Roy, Catalogue des films français de fiction de à Paris: It should be said that this filmography is not ideal for generating this kind of statistics.

No catalogue of early films can claim to be complete, so there may have been films in which mimes appeared which were missed entirely by the compilers. But there may also be over-representation as well as under-representation. Chirat and Le Roy seem to have decided to assign a catalogue entry to every title they found in an authoritative source.

Quite apart from the quality of the sources they used — an entry in J. I have endeavoured to eliminate these extra numbers. Henri Bousquet, make this correction a relatively easy task. This gesture, too, obviously refers to speech. In the same way, although the scenes in most films in this period, even tinted and toned ones, were monochrome, no one thought they had therefore to pretend that the world filmed was one without colour. Indiana University Press, I do not know whether the Neapolitan dialect companies used specifically Neapolitan gestures in their performances as well as the language.

If so, Bertini is avoiding them in the film version. The main characters within this debate, as is well known, are critics, playwrights, intellectuals, polygraphs, and educated men of various cultural and social extractions who contributed to this discussion initially in newspapers and then in specialized journals. Over the years, this wealth of publications would considerably increase the variety of arguments appearing in the first books devoted to cinema.

Often these contributions are solicited from the outside: Other times, other people might freely express their opinion motivated by the desire to spread a personal point of view on the new expressive medium, its development, and its aesthetic potential: Nevertheless, this debate is full of prophecies, forecasts, tentative definitions, aesthetic projects most of which would not be accomplished either because they proved unviable, because of the difficulty of realizing them, because of the different direction that cinema will undertake as a commercial medium, and finally — as we will see — because of the overwhelming predominance of sound.

Within the multiplicity of possible directions, I have chosen to privilege theories of cinema in relationship to pantomime: I will try to establish how and why a variety of theories, even those predominantly focused on production,1 will prove unsuccessful. Finally, I will mention an issue that would deserve to be more fully addressed elsewhere and which will be only touched on here: Another preliminary question concerns the definition of pantomime: Drawing on this shared meaning of pantomime it is possible to inquire into its similarities with cinema.

References to the analogy between the two expressive forms are widely spread, especially in the early s, as Alain Carou believes. Or, alternatively, as in the case reported above, to deny its specificity. He advocates the link between pantomime and cinema with the following argument: Where conditions allow it, the analogy is expressed through a history of the pantomime, from its Greek origins to the present. Gariazzo and Bragaglia lead the way into a journey through centuries-long history of pantomime by drawing frequent comparisons with its contemporary situation and the cinema.

Usually, this is a way to address some questions related to film aesthetics, and identify, in the classical ideal of pantomime, a model for it. An interesting example is the famous argument between French reformer Noverre and Italian choreographer Angiolini, which Bragaglia presents chauvinistically. Among the many reasons for this controversy, Bragaglia gives particular emphasis to their disagreement about the usage of intertitles, prologues, or spoken comments.

After a detailed presentation of their different positions he concludes: As a result, his reasoning creates a peculiar short circuit whereby the pantomime represents at the same time the beginning and the end of the artistic accomplishments of cinema: In short, cinema and pantomime tend to compromise their expressive purity and autonomy in order to enrich their communicative potential with any possible means. As a consequence, Bragaglia maintains, they lose their originality, risk failure, and jeopardize their very identity.

In this sense, cinematic pantomime is interpreted as the outcome of a need of the times, a fundamental trait of the Twentieth century sensibility. The first modern trait can be found, naturally, in the mechanical and reproductive nature of the medium, a new spatial and temporal synthesis made possible by the new technology.

The most original element, however, is the fact that cinema transforms bodily expressions, clearly modernizing them. With this point of view, the argument put forth by Pietro Gariazzo, the author of The Mute Theater, appears stronger.

The second characteristic of the cinematic gesture, for Gariazzo, is its immediacy: This statement clearly reveals the utopia or the over-simplification of naturalistic acting. All theoreticians, still searching for defining categories and an appropriate lexicon, are struck by the unprecedented power of the gesture as revealed by cinema: These differences will be augmented by the most acute film critics and by the first attempts to systematize an aesthetic of cinema.

It is not by chance that, usually, this way of putting pantomime at a distance precedes the enunciation of a precise aesthetic project for cinema, however utopian: Let us examine the exemplary — under this respect — trajectories of Ricciotto Canudo and Sebastiano Arturo Luciani. In an enthusiastic and programmatic essay, The Triumph of the Cinematographer, the former — writer, poet, critic and European playwright — articulates some precocious thoughts about cinema: It is consecrated to painting in motion, and contains the full manifestation of a most singular creation, realized by men, who are for this reason of a new kind: Along this line, pantomime follows cinema at a considerable distance because — still according to Canudo — it is an imitative, illustrative art, destined to represent stories, ideas, emotional states, but incapable of spiritually evoking them through the abstract procedures of visual drama.

However, this analogy is comprised within a fundamentally negative vision: Luciani considers both cinema and pantomime as decadent expressive forms, both guilty of having tried to incorporate or substitute for other arts, poetry in particular.

He nevertheless sees a possibility of amend for cinema, more than for pantomime, in the modern mimic musical drama, where music is the element leading the representation. Luciani refers to the Russian Ballets as an example where music has freed itself from the constrains imposed by choreography: The first signs of the technological revolution of cinema precipitate the debate on the use of sound, on the value of the spoken word, and the related aesthetic transformations of cinema: Drawing on already established arguments, Pagnol talks about early cinema as a mechanically reproduced pantomime, whose possibilities are limited.

Sound provides cinema with new possibilities: Sound works as a divide between pantomime and theater, locating cinema alternatively on each side of this divide. Silent film was the art of impressing, fixating, and spreading pantomime. As the invention of the press had enormous influence on literature, similarly the invention of silent cinema had great influence on pantomime: Charlot, Gance, Griffith, René Clair have renewed the pantomime.

The spoken film is the art of impressing, fixating and spreading theater. The spoken film, which brings new resources to theater, must re-create theater. Within the group of the cautious defenders of silent cinema, we have already met Anton Giulio Bragaglia, who devotes more space to the reflection on the relationship between pantomime and film in his two volumes written between and Therefore, from his introductory chapter, Bragaglia claims that sound breaks the link between cinema and pantomime.

We have understood how different prophecies about a pantomimic cinema have remained — in most cases — mere auspices and unrealized projects. This does not preclude the fact that at the level of production pantomime effectively entered into cinema. It is precisely from this pantomime, with the assistance of opera, that the interest for the composition of masses and for spectacle is born: Choreography is […] the soul of cinema. The audience wants to have a good time, that is, be struck by the spectacle of greatness, of wonders, and comedy.

The spectator will watch simple scenes, with few characters, with more or less interest, but he will soon be tired. This is a different direction, which might contribute to illuminate another issue, such as the relationship between pantomime and cinema from the perspective of national identity This is what a patriotic Gariazzo seems to suggest, when he talks about the historical genre: Teorie, Strumenti, memorie, vol.

Einaudi, , p. Boschi, Teorie del cinema. Il periodo classico Roma: Carocci, , pp. Abel, French Film Theory and Criticism, vol. Il cinema e le altre arti — The Tenth Muse. Cinema and the Other Arts Udine: Forum, , p. Bracco, Tra le arti e gli artisti Napoli: Giannini, , pp. Clueb, , pp. Gariazzo, Il teatro muto Torino: Lattes, ; A.

Bragaglia, Il film sonoro Milano: Corbaccio, and A. Bragaglia, Evoluzione del mimo Milano: Enciclopedia dello spettacolo, vol. Le Maschere, , pp. Bragaglia, Evoluzione del mimo, cit. Costa, Teorie del cinema dalle origini agli anni Trenta: Essays and Reflections New York: Schocken Books, , pp.

Grignaffini, Sapere e teorie del cinema. Il periodo del muto Bologna: CLUEB, , p. Gariazzo, Il teatro muto, cit. In chapter VI of this volume, devoted to mimic gesture, Gariazzo gives a rough classification of types of gestures. He divides them in action movements, character movements, instinctive movements, descriptive movements, complementary movements.

Brewster, L Jacobs, Theatre to Film: Oxford University, ; R. University of California, ; L. Bragaglia, Il film sonoro, cit. I am quoting from the Italian translation in G. Simmel, Il volto e il ritratto, Bologna: Il Mulino, , p. On this subject see D. Frisby, Fragments of Modernity. Polity Press — Basil Blackwell, ; F. Casetti, Il cinema, per esempio.

La nascita e lo sviluppo del cinema tra Otto e Novecento Milano: Isu Università Cattolica, ; L. University of California, I am quoting from the Italian translation in R.

I am quoting from the Italian translation found in R. Materiali sul cinema muto italiano Venezia: We would then have a newest form of representation where musical impressionism would be fully integrated with the impressionism of the scene: Il cinematografo come arte Roma: La Voce, , p. CLUEB, , pp. La Nouvelle Edition, Excerpts can be found also in A. Here I am rather interested in highlighting the relationship between sound cinema and cinematic pantomime.

Note di storia del cinema, n. Among the other Italian films inspired by the character made immortal by Deburau: Il romanzo di un Pierrot tit. Karenne, Karenne Film, On the popularity of pantomimic dance in Italy see also L. Storia dello spettacolo musicale. UTET, , pp. The film is composed by a great number of gags in which public figures from articles about national and international politics, life-style, theater, crime, sports, and literature jump from the articles and animate their description.

Nuova Eri, , pp. The light of hypnosis Inside, at the back of a pitch-black room with a low ceiling, the six-foot high screen, no bigger than a man, shines on a monstrous audience, a mesmerized mass glued to the seats by this white eye with its fixed gaze. Lovers sit in a corner, embracing tightly, but what they see takes them far away […] People […] stare until their eyes almost pop out of their heads.

This was a metaphor that was destined to become clearer and clearer, and more pressing. Mabuse, der Spieler Here, it is not our purpose to draw an outline of the relationship between cinema and hypnosis, but rather to ask two related questions. Firstly, how can viewing a film be seen as a state of hypnosis, even if no hypnotist is actually present in the cinema? Secondly, what are the effects of the overlap between film and hypnosis as far as the social perception of the act of seeing a film is concerned?

Archaeology of a metaphor From the end of the eighteenth century up to about the s, magnetism and hypnosis were practised in fixed and recurrent scenes, even though articulated from inside. We can describe a classical magnetic scene. In the middle of the scene, there is the pair magnetized — magnetizer; around them there is an audience which may be large or small.

This scene is ambiguous. On one hand it represents an excessively intense and hierarchical relationship: On the other hand, we are dealing with a scene of a particular epiphany: Another reason is that, being a form of optical touch, it can explore each dimension in the universe, visible or invisible, near or far, past, present or future. The magnetic setting therefore presents itself as a device composed of viewing and excessive gazes.

At the end of the eighteenth century this scene loses its definition and internal coherence: Hypnosis is no longer practiced on clearly determined subjects and in clearly determined places: On one hand it spreads in a mutual relationship among the components of the society: So one can speak of a horizontal dimension of suggestion relationship. On the other hand, suggestion is characterized by the direct relationship between the magnetizer and the audience: Therefore, a vertical dimension of the hypnotic relationship can be spoken of.

The visionary component of hypnosis is notably present in the vertical dimension. A similar image-projection happens when the magnetizer and the audience are not simultaneously present, when the contact is through the medium of a text.

This is particularly true in the novel: The physiological mechanist theories of the second half of the century, especially those of neurological reflexes, restore, in the new context, the motif — typical of the classical magnetic scene — of the clear, excessive and absolute gaze: But note the basic ambiguity that is produced. Modern forms of the hypnotic scene match the two kinds of visions: It is interesting to notice that on some occasions this specific kind of visionary relationship is enlightened by a peculiar metaphor: I hereby report only two quotations.

The first one is by a little known philosopher, Paul Souriau. It really is the show from an armchair. The darkness is in the room and the wait for the mystery, exciting my imagination, induces me to see the as yet unprojected images on the white screen. What is about to be performed? For instance Le Crépuscule. I see a roaring pond in the evening breeze, a deep forest; and all of a sudden a star appears through the shady branches which rises and lights up, radiant, resplendant in the sky.

And as vaguely seen in a pale light, the shots appear one after the other, melt into each other, while an invisible orchestra accompanies these visions. How lulled are we by this slow music! Sleep, it tells us, dream! After a while we sink more deeply into hypnosis. These magic lantern images fade away.

I thus find myself in my armchair, with a book in my hands, and these little black characters on this white page are the ones that led me to this hallucination: I was reading the Contemplations. The crowds think — and are made to think by their leaders — as if they were watching a magic lantern show: Whatever the ideas suggested to the crowds may be, they cannot become dominant unless they are in a very simple form and are represented through images.

These idea-images are not connected by any logical - analogical or subsequent — link, so that each one can replace the other, just like the magic lantern plates that the operator takes, one by one, from the box they were laid one upon another. The images produced in their minds by a character, an event or an accident are as vivid as the real thing[ Only images, the only element their thought is fed by, can impress, frighten or seduce the crowds, becoming the motive of any of their actions.

However, one further phenomenon seems to be interesting: This organic composition is completed with Freud: This reconnection is where the new modern magnetic scene comes from: Good and evil, the world itself, and the watching subject himself, do not exist but in connection with the Father and his gaze. The stage model of hypnosis is embedded in the origins of every other scene of hypnosis: In other words, every hypnotized subject is part of an audience, even when he is the only member.

A powerful, mesmerizing eye. An entrapped, isolated, subdued audience. The new hypnotic scene, just recomposed, is ready to enter the darkness of the movie theatre straightaway. Maybe it is not merely a coincidence that Massenpsychologie und IchAnalyse was published in The rule of metaphor We now come to the second question introduced at the beginning of this chapter — what are the consequences of the overlap between the modern hypnotic setting and the scene of a group of spectators absorbed in the vision of a film?

First of all, it can be observed that the retrieval of the hypnotic scene allows what would otherwise be invisible and unthinkable to be a scene which is thought of and seen because it is entirely new: In other words, the metaphor of hypnosis helps build a social visibility of the film viewing scene and of the film fruition experience, thanks to the restoration and overlap of categories well known in this period, such as the hypnosis of crowds.

Secondly, and as a consequence, once restored, the hypnotic metaphor produces a situation of film fruition: In short, the hypnotic metaphor builds the film viewing scene, giving it a meaning, an identity, a model, a way. And this is not all: No less than other social situations, film viewing is subject to such a symbolic efficacy9 that knowledge, learning and social tales determine role-takings, physical states, and emotional reactions.

Thirdly, and finally, not only does the hypnotic metaphor highlight and organize elements present in the film fruition device, it also brings about, through imagination, what is not present in the device.

This imaginary integration occurs, in particular, through two correlated aspects. We have seen how, since its origins, hypnosis emerges as a relationship that awakens images from gazes. Hypnosis is first of all and originally an interpersonal relationship, a kind of interaction. It is primarily expressed through the gaze: This concept is not only found throughout the history of hypnosis it is hypnosis: However, when applied to the situation of film viewing, it has to face a notable difficulty: The only way to keep the hypnotic metaphor is then to invent a non-existent relationship.

In order for the metaphor to be effective, and for the fruition scene to consequently have its meaning, it is necessary to turn the imaginary interpersonal relationship between spectator and screen into a personal relationship between the spectator and a person who is there, watches him, talks to him, shows him some images, tells him a story.

What shape has it taken, what utopias has it fed, what models has it given life to? And what ruins of an unfulfilled future has it caused? It seems as if the answer were to be searched for according to three directions. Secondly, the idea that the movie is the place where a hypnotic relation is set off — in more or less concealed forms — goes through the theories of cinema.

Thirdly, the idea that the movie spectator is absorbed in a hypnotic state goes through the history of films and of the movie representation, with moments of alternate fortune and with a discontinuous availability to make the diegetic representation of the hypnotic relation a model of the relationship between the film and his spectator. This is destined to surge in some American horror films of the Thirties, subsequently followed by a period of drowsiness. After a new period of silence or, better, a period in which the subject is hidden inside B class horror movies the theme comes out anew in certain art movies of the Eighties Von Trier, Bigas Luna , by the time fully aware of their metafictitious implications and consequences.

To study the way these three projections of the hypnotic metaphor in the movie have or have not been correlated and synchronized is the concern of a work that still needs to be done. And most of all, he will see the cinema as the new instrument of propaganda: The government itself, as Le Bon concludes, has to buy some movie theatres and become film distributor and producer. Payot, , p. Texte zum Verhältnis von Literatur und Film Tübingen: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, , pp.

Editions de la Sirène, ; now in Ecrits sur le cinéma, ed. Seghers, , pp. Jeheber, , pp. Vita e Pensiero, , in particular pp. For further indepth study and bibliography refer to this volume.

Special thanks to Raymond Bellour and Francesco Casetti for following this work with attention and encouragement. Alcan, , our trans. The reader is reminded that Les Contemplations is the title Hugo gave to his poems collection Le Bon, Psychologie des foules Paris: The main model of such an imaginative force is no longer identified by Le Bon in the magic lantern shows, but rather in plays.

One should not be surprised by the conclusion of this theory concerning the relationship between hallucination, hypnosis and crowds. It has been robbed from the nurturing womb of science, kidnapped from the respectful estate of empirical science to be raised in the smudgy quarters of popular tastes, fast money and cultural pretense.

Barely an infant, cinema has been stolen by the showmen, the merchants and the artists. Needless to say, cinema was thoroughly corrupted by the company it was forced to keep. Since the abduction occurred in the most impressionable phase of development for positivisms most promising — however certainly neither only nor last — child, its most promising future never was: They were meant to extend the reach of the visible into a realm that most recalcitrantly remained imperceptible - the realm of motion, notably the body in motion, that most seriously remained unseen in its precise workings,5 since the encorporated sense of vision was simply unable to register the details of movement beyond or below a certain speed.

These machines claimed to produce evidence and knowledge by revealing the empiri- cally sound answer to serious quests for truthful information, such as: Instead of revealing the true workings of nature by arming the flawed senses with technological devices, the instrument was used to feed upon these very flaws and perceptual lacks to produce the mimetic illusion of motion for an audience seeking visual and other pleasures and craved for tricks being played on their senses.

Magic tricks and conjurers acts the instrument of science was made to perform, its purity spoiled, its innocence corrupted, its reputation damaged and destroyed beyond repair. Nothing but mocking salutes have been paid by the kidnappers in return. Such as the thoroughly distorted views of science and scientists, the Dr. Thus Lisa Cartwright in her critique of Comolli maintains a number of blind spots being produced by this conception.

Understanding the social context of the laboratory — its technology, its economy, its own cultural mode of spectatorship — is no simple matter of evoking an unspecified artisanal science or a generalized technology. Similarly beyond this scope are issues of institutional implications or new methodological orientations. What I propose therefore for the remainder of this essay is an initial query into a topic of research that could produce knowledge about various modes of professional spectatorship of cinema.

Should we imagine him as the air force staff sergeant in uniform scanning the film recorded by the B gun camera to validate the effectivity of the bomb raid? Is it the good doctor in white garments viewing the chronophotographical document of a tumor growth? We can place him or her? Despite this lack of information there are a few differences we can ascribe to the professional spectator as opposed to the spectator in public spectacle: There is a set of more or less standardized rules and procedures that allow this knowledge to be articulated, communicated and brought into a given epistemological horizon.

It has been constructed as a normative protocol of reading such as the training film studies students or oncologists receive. Much of this training has been geared towards the reduction of complexity and the installation of strategic gazes.

Thus the member of the air force reconnaissance unit, who screens the footage taken over enemy territory, is not asked for a description of the beauty of nature he encounters in this footage; nor for an essay about the aesthetics of abstraction in aerial photography. His gaze is trained to produce signatures of troops, military equipment and installations. To reduce the complexity of the image he has been disciplined by training to read signs in a pre-determined way. There are most likely manuals, curricula, institutions of education that teach this particular mode of reading.

To some extent the mode of reading is implemented in the technical equipment itself — such as automatic devices that record time, location and spatial identifiers. A particular medium of inscription may be used, such as infrared film, that transforms differences in the emission of heat into visual information. Whatever visual pleasure this spectator may derive from his experience of viewing, there is no place for it in the registers of knowledge, his work is designed to produce.

The register of pleasure is most likely displaced into a code of professional conduct. While popular media can never secure this, the very basis of professionally trained spectatorship seems to be designed to exclude all but preferred readings. University of California Press, , p. Weise, Medizinische Kinematographie Dresden: Steinkopff, , p. Weise reports that Doyen claimed to use the cinematographic records of his surgery to review his own performance and thus optimize his technique.

Why these films were made public then and could thus become early sensations of horror, awaits an explanation. A film made in depicting Dr. Doyen during the performance of an amputation is part of the compilation Origins of Scientific Cinema. Horkheimer, Die Dialektik der Aufklärung Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, [] certainly being one of the most forcefully told tales of degeneration told about popular cinema in this context.

Salt, Film Style and Technology: History and Analysis London: Starword, [] have done their best to reveal this scandalous mistreatment as entirely groundless misunderstandings.

Signet, , p. Cartwright, Screening the Body. University of Minnesota Press, , p. Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Hick, Geschichte der optischen Medien München: In a mode analogous to J.

Crary, Techniques of the Observer Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Hick traces historical shifts in the conception of visual perception.

Yet — as opposed to Crary — posits the emergence of early cinema as the vantage point of her study. The screening room of the studio has quite frequently been a location in filmic narrative such as the sequences at the beginning of Citizen Kane O.

Sturges, or La Nuit Américaine Fr. Wachowsky, cannot be interested in presenting its spectators the experience of bullets in slow-motion cinematography for pleasure. Hutchinson, , pp. Parmi les transformations successives dont le cinéma a été ou sera gratifié le relief tient une place à part.

Del resto non è nemmeno lo scopo che guida la ricerca: Testimoniano di una solidarietà e di una letterale sovrapposizione tra stereoscopia e cinema di cui non sembra a livello superficiale rimanere altra traccia.

Ma esse sono anche la prova tangibile di una lunga vicinanza almeno tra stereoscopia fotografica e cinematografica che spesso si tende a dimenticare. Negli ultimi due anni […] abbiamo trovato sul mercato ben poche nuove fotografie stereoscopiche. La gente ama guardare i volti degli amici più che le meraviglie del mondo giunte dinanzi ai loro occhi grazie allo stereoscopio. Praticato soprattutto in direzione del turismo fotografico e della ricostruzione storica, è opinione diffusa che il ritratto in stereoscopia fosse quasi esclusivamente riservato alle celebrità, tra queste innanzitutto attrici e attori.

Le fotografie stereoscopiche di Fabiola o di Christus, di Messalina o Quo vadis? Andrebbe aggiunto almeno da ultimo, perché no, il più tipico turismo fotografico legato agli stereogrammi; un viaggio questa volta non solo spaziale ma anche temporale nella realtà geografica e in questo caso anche storica e remota creata dal set cinematografico.

Del resto, come qualcuno annotava, la stereoscopia aveva spesso questo ambiguo statuto: Le fotografie di Guazzoni sono dunque lo spunto per tentare di parlare di un versante controverso del cinema, in particolare italiano. In realtà la visione stereoscopica, fotografica e soprattutto, per quello che preme in questo caso, cinematografica, conosce anche una sua storia italiana.

Il dibattito in Italia, infatti, appare molto attivo e consapevole, ben più di quanto venga in seguito ricordato. Una questione di tecnica: E, altro aspetto tutto italiano, la stereoscopia incrocia un genere apparentemente anomalo, la commedia Nozze vagabonde per la regia di Guido Brignone. Naturalmente soggetto e sceneggiatura erano questa volta un poco a rime obbligate.

Si trattava di servire ad un grande esperimento di cinematografia stereoscopica. I risultati, che ancora non abbiamo veduti, potrebbero spiegare tutto. Vorrà dire che, per una volta tanto, gli artisti avranno rinunciato alla loro boria proverbiale per mettere in buona luce i tecnici Poste sotto brevetto il 27 giugno , nel , gli avevano fatto presentare alla Mostra delle invenzioni di Torino32 tre esperimenti di stereocinema, la terrazza del caffè, il viale di un giardino e il parapetto di un ponte che ottennero un notevole successo, tanto da spingerlo alla fondazione apposita nel della S.

Il film di Brignone è veramente un caso anomalo; a quanto pare perduto, tranne qualche lacerto di pellicola,35 passa alla storia come opera pionieristica eppure maschera, come si è detto, una committenza forte e potente. Martinez e figli, al binocolo stereoscopico di Emilio Bertos, allo stereoscopio Cinemason e alle scoperte di Jellinek.

Perché la scelta della Direzione per la cinematografia sia ricaduta su Gualtierotti ci è ignoto. In generale, poi, è già riconoscibile il clima da backstage musical ante litteram che porta continuamente un film dalla ardita costruzione tecnica a fare della messa in scena stessa il suo oggetto privilegiato.

Per quanto la stereoscopia possa prendere piede, essa appare comunque incapace di vivere da sola, non solo per la congenita duplicità delle sue stesse immagini ma anche per il costante supporto della versione piatta a cui sempre si accompagna. Tra tutti naturalmente Renato May che esamina uno a uno i limiti della nuova tecnica: Troppo spesso infatti si dimentica che la stereoscopia cinematografica nei primi tempi si muove nello stesso canale del cinema a colori.

Non si tratta semplicemente di quella caccia al surplus di realismo che porta nel giro di pochi anni alla ricerca del suono, poi del colore e inoltre appunto del rilievo. Qui è la radice stessa dei fenomeni ad essere in comune. È più che lecito supporre che il brevetto depositato da Gualtiero Gualtierotti fosse infatti indirizzato innanzitutto alla ricerca del colore. È al montaggio Nozze vagabonde. Molte ricerche stereoscopiche assumono ambiguamente questa doppia natura, ma in almeno un caso il gioco è manifesto.

Come mostra il deposito di brevetti, già nel la Itala Film aveva simultaneamente rinnovato la privativa sia per un sistema a rilievo che per il colore: Della stereoscopia avevo una nozione piuttosto vaga. Mi ricordavo uno zio che, in un angolo del salotto, aveva una cassettina di mogano con due lenti: Tali erano i miei ricordi stereoscopici.

Ma confesso che non vedevo quale rapporto potesse correre tra mio zio e un film. E anche per Biancoli la particolarità più curiosa era il distacco delle figure sullo sfondo. La cosa seguitava a rimanere vaga. Berlino Apparecchio per la proiezione di immagini cinematografiche con effetto di rilievo. Privativa del 18 gennaio — D. Alla stessa data è depositata anche la domanda per un Sistema per la presa di fotografie a colori applicabile alla cinematografia a colori. Privativa del 5 maggio — D. Albans Gran Bretagna Mezzi perfezionati per ottenere effetti stereoscopici e di rilievo su lastre fotografiche e su pellicole e sulle positive e proiezioni fatte con esse.

Lipton, Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema. A Study in Depth New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, ; O. Masson, ; R.

McFarland, ; H. Little, Brown and Co. Michaud sous la dir. Va ricordato che a Holmes si dovette nel la costruzione di un apparecchio che ebbe grandissima fortuna e diffusione. Pellerin sous la dir. Bibliothèque nationale de France, , p. Fenomeni analoghi sono riscontrabili in area italiana vd. De Luca, e Obbiettivo Europa. La raccolta di fotografie stereoscopiche della Biblioteca Vallicelliana.

Su questi aspetti vd. Zannier, Storia della fotografia italiana Bari: Rondolino, Storia del cinema Torino: Utet, , p. Sorlin, The Film in History. Restaging the Past Oxford: Basic Blackwell, ; trad. La storia nei film. Interpretazioni del passato Firenze: La Nuova Italia, , in part. Naissance du langage cinématographique Paris: Nathan, ; trad. Galassi, Prima della fotografia Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, , cfr. Casetti, Il cinema e lo sguardo novecentesco Milano: Cappabianca, Il cinema e il sacro Genova: Le Mani, , p.

Dickson al sistema Teleview di L. Italia; regia Guido Brignone; visto di censura n. Società Anonima Italiana Stereocinematografica, Milano. Biancoli; Sceneggiatura di G. Eckart; operatore Anchise Brizzi versione piatta e Luigi Reverso versione stereoscopica ; sistema stereoscopico ing. Gualtiero Gualtierotti; aiuto regista e montatore ing. Giuseppe Fatigati; tecnico del suono: Tecnica e linguaggio Roma: Edizioni Paoline, , p. Savio a cura di , Cinecittà anni Trenta.

Parlano protagonisti del secondo cinema italiano. Bulzoni, , pp. Provenzal, La prima Mostra nazionale delle invenzioni, Torino 11 maggio giugno Roma: Bernardini, Cinema italiano Le imprese di produzione Roma: Anica, , p. Va ricordato che la stereoscopia sviluppa infatti due tecnologie particolari: In Italia i sistemi collettivi troveranno pieno perfezionamento solo nel con il Sistema Betti procedimento a trame di Alberto e Adriano Betti.

Museo nazionale del cinema, , p. Guido Brignone e il primo film stereoscopico: IV di copertina; Anon. Le fotografie qui presentate sono tratte da questo articolo, tranne quellla sulle macchine da presa utilizzate nel film, che è riportata in D.

Le canzoni come la musica erano del maestro Nino Ravasini anche successivamente noto per alcuni famosi motivi canori. Dipinti e sculture del sole. Norling in 3D sistema polarizzato e Technicolor.

Ad essa fa seguito il Festival britannico del dove Raymond Spottiswoode era direttore della Sezione pellicole stereoscopiche e stereofoniche, tra le quali le famose animazioni di Norman Mc Laren per il National Film Board canadese.

La Scuola Editrice, Ortoleva, Il videotelefono, in M. Tra le motivazioni più convincenti sulla fine della stereoscopia rimane sicuramente la sua concorrenza con il Cinemascope e in generale di quei sistemi che rinegoziano la dinamica tra spazio della sala e dello schermo vd. Belton, Widescreen Cinema Cambridge: Rizzoli, ; ora in D. Mormorio a cura di , Gli scrittori e la fotografia Roma: Editori Riuniti, , pp. Bompiani, , pp. The rare passages from the text that have been translated into Italian1 only give a glimpse of the varied and intricate network of references, and of the cultural context, which is rich with ideal and creative fervor.

And re-reading Youngblood would also mean rediscovering that rich mesh of references, from poetry to science, and art to ecology, which characterizes the poignant introduction by Buckminster Fuller: It establishes meaning in life, creates mediating channels between man and man, man and society.

After all, Youngblood continued to repeat his theory as many as twenty years later, extending it to all the new technologies that were developed in the meantime, when in he stated that a revolution in communications should concern its self with creating a medium by combining television, computer, telephone, and satellite in one sole multimedia network that is run by the consumer, and which should be used free of charge, and intended, he added, to change mass communications into inter-subjective conversation.

Brown, Marcuse, and Laing —, toward a polymorphic conception of erotism, and of going beyond the constrictive separation of mind-body, emotion-conscience: Cinema, as Youngblood sees it, should never be a repetition of what is already known, but the development of the intellectual-emotional powers, the creation of the unknown and the unseen before, consciousness.

She predicted that the vertical and horizontal unrolling of the scenes would be simultaneous and that it would stimulate the numbed attention and the association of ideas hidden in the unconscious. Kaplan theorized that the psychological euphoria of the new sensations, the suggestion of a new world hidden behind the images, would be elevated to the infinite power, because multiplication would no longer be enough.

She thought polivision to be the cinema of the future, the sole art in the atomic era, which had already opened before them. The 16mm film, without a title , made by John Whitney Jr. The film is a sequential triptych: It is among the few independently produced multiple-projection films to justify its own multiplicity. Whereas most multiple projections is gratuitous and arbitrary, the Whitney film is a cohesive whole, each element accentuating and complementing the other two in ways that make the experience incomplete without all three parts.

The flanking images are identical, though reversed, so as to frame the center screen symmetrically, and the close synchronization of form and color among the screens demands highly controlled projection conditions. It brings everything together into the same expanded cinema category: Clarke and Douglas Trumbull. The Stargate Corridor sequence is analyzed as one of the examples of the beginning of a new era of cinema: Cinema, therefore, expands, also because the surface and space for viewing has multiplied, dilating the associative and visionary capacity of our minds simultaneously.

Youngblood stops to analyze a few examples: Among the other characteristics of the multiple vision Labyrinthe, we may note the horizontal projection at times together with a perpendicular, vertical one , the enormous dimensions 70mm. The creators of these devices include them in the sphere of expanded cinema, which is capable of overcoming the logic of the traditional plot, and of creating sensorial experiences that are deeper than the ones created in narrative films. And here, as we will see, is one of the divergences between the multiple vision and the mega vision that Youngblood talks about, and what has, in fact, asserted itself in both the world exhibitions and the theme parks.

It is a spectacularity, in other words, which should become a constitutive, in an organic and widespread way, of the experience of the spectator. Whereas this overcoming has become — we will discuss it in detail later on in the text — an area of research which extends expanding and contracting to two different areas of the audio-visual world: Cinema has gone from silent films to sound, then color, then research and experimentation on Cinemascope and Cinerama, on to the three-dimensional image, the Imax and Omnimax cinema halls, and we could also add the improvements that have taken place in sound, and, naturally, the use of more and more sophisticated special effects.

Yet, if what counts in the cinema that prevails today, or rather what dominates uncontestedly, is the simulation of reality, and all the technical improvements are aimed at giving the maximum credibility possible to a story credibility even when the story is incredible , then utopian forms of cinema that we have just mentioned, another cinema is being proposed, that is indifferent to traditional fiction, and hostile to the concept of cinema as entertainment or as evasion, as show in the banal sense of the word.

Since this is not a physical reality, it must be a metaphysical reality, that is, a myth. What we see on the screen is not an act. This is mythopoietic reality. In one sense it renders fiction obsolete. This theory clearly echoes the reflections of Maya Deren, but also of the New American Cinema, and vindicates reality and concreteness for films that are certainly not considered realistic something that Youngblood did, in fact, when examining the kinetic paintings by Jordan Belson.

Thanks to its poets, he said, this art of matter Mekas adds celluloid and the screen to light and movement will go beyond being merely a medium for telling stories.

In it, Vasulka intertwines vastly varied and fragmented visual references into a continuous stream; he reconstructs a film made up of many films, photographs, pages from books about utopias, wars, and revolutions in the past century , which unfold in ever-changing shapes and forms against the majestic landscape of New Mexico.

On various occasions Vasulka, has, in fact, been open about his aversion to editing, and about his research on the transition of images, which continually change in space and time.

And, adds Vasulka, they are able to unhinge the renaissance prospective that has dominated the construction of the images up to the present.

A digital version of the soft transition from one image to the next, is the morphing effect, which smoothly combines different forms by passing form one to the other: