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Le sulla alle seggiolini auto http: The liturgy of the TOL. The churches were trans- formed into vast halls, decorated with an ostentation which excluded, or at least hindered, the religious senti- ment. Longhena, for example, lavishes all the wealth of his exuberant fancy on the interior of the Scalzi, gleam- ing with variegated marbles, adorned with festoons and amorini, in the midst of which rises the high altar, designed in contorted and convulsive lines by the Car- melite Father Giuseppe Pozzo.

The interior of the Gesuiti , designed by Domenico Rossi, dis- plays a like unbalanced caprice ; coloured marbles imi- tate drapery ; gold is spread over the ceiling, which is surcharged with bizarre stucco work.

It is true that barocco invaded the older churches too, but without disturbing their harmony. For instance, under the austere arches of SS. Giovanni e Paolo the style has left its traces in the chapel of San Domenico, in the monument of the Valier designed by Tirali, and in the high altar by Matteo Carnero. The same tendency makes itself felt in the decoration of patrician houses, in the furniture, the utensils, the bronzes, plate, ivories, glass, in short, in all the objects of domestic luxury.

But in Venice barocco, and later on rococo, are stamped by a vitality and originality all their own, not so much in the architecture as in the decoration of the houses. The straight line, with its suggestion of strong will, disappears from the chambers, and its place is taken by volutes, flourishes, scrolls, waving lines, which grow ever more and more pronounced, and seem to correspond to that unrest, indecision, con- fusion, which is the note of the epoch reluctant to bridle its passions.

Even where, by some rare chance, a little garden spread its greenery by the side of a Gothic or Lombardesque pal- ace, letting the warm brown of the brickwork appear through the branches, a new style of gardening was introduced, box trees cut into strange forms, climbing roses trailing over the walls, flowers of every species and colour in the borders. Marble groups of suggestive sub- jects in violent movement, nymphs and goddesses with arms outstretched in invitation, rose among green and flowering shrubs ; the gateways displayed elaborate wrought-iron gates with coats of arms and coronets.

The entrance halls of the old palaces, where by the side of the painted wooden benches stood trophies of pikes and halberds, the great lanterns of the galleys, and the huge armorial bearings of the family, produced a chilly feeling of melancholy in a generation steeped in luxury, who preferred to promenade in ample court- yards and colonnades of marble, such as are to be seen in the Pesaro and Rezzonico palaces, built by Longhena in the Seicento, or in the Palazzo Grassi, by Domenico Rossi, or the Palazzo Cornaro della Regina by Massari, both belonging to the eighteenth century.

Martinioni, in his Aggiunte to the Venetia of Sansovino, published in 1 , cites other courts and vestibules which no longer exist, and records how the taste of the day tended to transform gardens into sumptuous cortiles adorned with statues and filled with the perfume of delitiose piante.

Such was the famous garden of the Morosini at San Canciano, "which was uprooted and paved in brick, with a beautiful pattern in white marble running through it, so that the whole garden was turned into a spacious cortile surrounded by lofty and handsome buildings. In the internal decoration a greater display of pomp, which had now become a law more rigidly observed than governmental decrees, took the place of the severer splendours of the Cinquecento.

The chief medium of the new art was stucco. Malleable and obedient to the pressure of the hurrying hand, it lent itself admirably to the inventive caprice of the artist and to the leafy richness of the decorative style. Already by the close of the Seicento the ceilings and walls of the Ducal Palace had been adorned with splendid stucco work ; the vault of the Scala d'oro was admirably designed by Alessandro Vittoria, who decorated Sansovino's Library with a still finer scheme.

But the boldness of this great master degenerated, in his followers and imitators, into exaggerated audacity, though even so their work was not lacking in a certain grandiosity and grace. From the cornice the stucco springs away and covers the whole ceiling with an exuberance of foliage and scroll work.

Sometimes, amid flowers and foliage, flourishes and scrolls, ribbons and bows, there opens out, in the middle of the ceiling, a great frame of stucco enclosing a painting, in which muscular deities and provocative nymphs are confused in a writhing mass of forms. At other times the ceiling curves and spreads downward like a canopy held up by a rout of amorini and chubby Cupids.

Again, the architect of the Seicento would leave untouched the construction and the mouldings of the Renaissance, but would fill in the compartments of the ceiling with masks, monsters, bosses, scrolls, fruit and flowers, carved in wood left natural or gilded. The Sala del Collegio, designed by Antonio da Ponte, in the Ducal Palace was a frequent model for mural decoration, but the cornices, the jambs, and lintels of the doorways were still further enriched by curves, broken arches, and volutes.

Still more auda- cious innovators threw to the winds all traditions of the earlier style in the moulding of cornices and doorways ; they sought only sinuous and broken lines which should be in keeping with the decoration and followed only one law, the search for theatrical effect. Martinioni, speaking of ' ' the more memorable buildings now in course of construction," mentions the Palazzo Cornaro Piscopia at San Luca, " rebuilt in some parts, and adorned with noble chambers decorated by handsome cornices of beautiful design and fine moulding.

Cavazza was en- nobled in 1 65 3 and employed by the Republic on missions to various foreign courts. Let us hear Mar- tinioni himself give an account of this palace, for certain descriptions gain in truth and veracity when rehearsed by a contemporary in the style of his day. The third floor, also well furnished, com- mands a wide view over two stretches of the lagoon.

But the point which distinguishes this palace from all others is the apartment on the ground floor, admirably arranged; the space usually devoted to domestic offices has been turned into charming saloons, and the portico that leads to them has been embellished with five rows of precious sculptures. In fact, when one enters, both eye and spirit are fascinated no less by the pure white of the vaulting of great height, and by its decoration of stucco festoons and figures and other beauties, than by the splendour of the fittings and the great variety of artistic objects on all sides.

To the right and left in the niches are statues, and between these on brackets stand heads and busts. A little further on are oval panels of cypress wood painted by the best masters of this city, such as the Cavaliere Liberi, Pietro Vecchia, Ruschi, and others.

A carved frieze runs all round, and below it are bas-reliefs of great value, exquisite antiques on pedestals, great canvases by master hands, while a little higher up are four life-size figures by Gior- gione, most carefully executed ; under the windows are other reliefs, and octagonal pendants descend from the cornice. In a great niche to the right is a Neptune with a dolphin at his feet, while on the ground stand two lions in precious marble.

Opposite the niche which holds the Neptune is another, all inlaid with mother-of-pearl, which shelters a group of two figures, Venus and Adonis in embrace, beautifully executed.

The whole grotto is enclosed in iron railings with gilded lilies, so that no touch of refinement should be wanting, a refinement and rarity displayed also in the velvet- covered settees and chairs, in the portieres of double velvet, draping the doors of the long suite of rooms. The gallery ends in a hall with six niches, six doors, and four windows, all stuccoed in white with roundels of white and red French marble connected by festoons.

Upon tables of paragone and of ebony inlaid with ivory stand specimens of ancient and modern sculpture, well- cast bronzes, and other rarities. The space of one of the doors is artistically filled with four great mirrors, each in six squares, with gilded metal frames.

Next comes a loggia with columns and cornices of Verona marble, called mandolalo ; the ceiling is in stucco, and all round are scenes painted in gouache ; above these come pictures of birds, flowers, fruit, and game with Florentine mosaics of lapis lazuli and other precious stones. You can leave this loggia by great windows which will shut, and you pass into a court- yard decorated by Brescian artists l and green with great orange trees, Three handsomely carved doors open into the last apartment, which is vaulted in brick, the ceiling being divided into compartments and stuc- coed, while stucco-fluted columns with five niches i In the seventeenth century the Brescian artists were famous for their architectural designs which they painted on the walls of courtyards.

Many palaces in Brescia are so decorated with long architectural perspectives. Of all this wealth of art nothing now remains to us but the rude phrases of Martinioni, and amid the havoc and changes wrought by man and by time we can find only here and there scattered traces of all this past magnificence.

In the Palazzo Pesaro is a ceiling of the Seicento, with carved compartments, very well pre- served. The centre is filled by a picture representing the Triumph of Venice, enclosed in an oval frame, which is designed in harmony with the other divisions of the roof, decorated with angels, amorini, and foliage, in the midst of which are the arms of the Pesaro family.

The other divisions also contain paintings and the fol- lowing inscription: Condidit et ornavit A. The Palazzo Albrizzi at Sant' Apollinare gives us a complete and beautiful example of Seicento decoration. The palace belonged to the citizen family of Bonomo and was built towards the close of the sixteenth century. In 1 half of it, perhaps the piano nobile, was ac- quired by the Albrizzi, and the rest in The old Cinquecento Palace, of which one room still remains, was entirely remodelled inside and transformed by magnificent and fantastic decoration, ordered certainly after the year , at which date the Albrizzi were ad- mitted to the Patriciate.

The stucco work is heavy, it is true, but judged by the ideas of that epoch, we must recognise both the genius and the fine taste of the unknown artists, who drew their inspiration from the work of Alessandro Vittoria.

The staircase, which is neither wide nor handsome, leads up to the central saloon, with doors and ceiling decorated with rich ornamentation. Around the door- ways of Istrian stone, carved in classical lines by stone- cutters of the sixteenth century, the stucco-workers of the following century modelled their foliage and capri- cious volutes.

On the ceiling and above the doors amorini and figures in high relief stand out in graceful poses. In the reception-rooms these anonymous artists lavished their inventive genius in a rich and graceful scheme of decoration. Among others there is one square chamber which is a veritable poet's dream. The ceiling represents a great curtain ; it starts from an octagonal ornament in the centre, covers the entire surface and is caught up at the angles by eight colossal figures, and in the middle by four and twenty beauti- fully modelled cherubs, who in various attitudes are flying or dancing, or hiding under the folds of the canopy, which are skilfully and ingeniously indicated.

This joyous rout is, perhaps, the most vivacious scheme of decoration that ever passed through an artist's brain ; the style betrays the work of the Secentisti. The next room is clearly designed by modellers of the following century. Furniture, following the style of decoration employed on ceilings and walls, was also gradually modified. Pieces of furniture in ebony, mahogany, walnut, were enriched with precious stones or plaques of porcelain, crystal, ivory, mosaic, or bronze.

Inlayers, mosaicists, bronze-founders, engravers, and potters were all asso- ciated with the cabinet-maker in his trade. Frames, tables, lockers, cupboards, beds, chairs, stools, cabinets all are adorned with strange patterns, in ara- besque, leaves, sprays, tendrils, birds, animals, figures of chimaeras and sphinxes. This was a style which attracted strong though undisciplined natures, and it gives its special character to the work of Francesco Pianta, the creator of the fantastic row of stalls in the great hall of the Scuola di San Rocco, and that still more extravagant production the clock-frame preserved in the Sacristy of the Frari.

Under such a flood of ornamentation it was natural that furniture soon became 1 Ercole Udine, the Duke of Mantua's Ambassador in Venice, men- tions, in , ebonists who turned out furniture lustro come specchio ; for instance, six chests con projili di avorii di forme quadrate, which had each of them three niches with ivory figures of Jove, Venus and other heathen deities; also a bed with its sides reaching down to the ground.

The price asked for this furniture was seven thousand crowns. In an inventory of August 27, , stating the property belonging to Gaspare Malipiero Levi, Collez.

The style called after Louis XIV i 71 5 was launched by the flaming fantasy of Charles le Brun ; it is exagger- ated and pompous, but original and impressive, and is little different from the best Italian barocco. The style of Louis XV becomes lighter and more graceful, and retains its charm till it melts into the style of Louis XVI , where a vein of classicism begins to make itself felt and gradually asserts itself during the last years of the century.

France, in- deed, can boast such masters in ebony and bronze as the sons of Andr6 Charles Boulle and Philippe Cafieri, Reisner, BoviUe, Cressent, Levasseur, Oe'ben, Bene- man, Saunier, and others, past-masters in the decora- tion of furniture ; but the work of Andrea Brustolon, born at Belluno , is no less rich in grace and fancy.

He was not only an able carver of figures in wood, but he created designs for the entire wood-work 1 Saint-Didier La Ville et la RJp. XVI , writing in , when he must have had occasion to see many apartments furnished in the style of the Seicento, says: II n'y a pas moins de deux cents pieces d'appartement toutes chargees de richesses dans le seul palais Foscarini ; mais tout se surmarche ; il n'y a pas un seul cabinet ni un fauteuil ou Ton puisse s'asseoir, a cause de la qe"licatesse.

The Cupids, admirably modelled, display vivacity of movement amid the bold curves of the decorative design, with its fauns and nymphs and chimaeras. Brustolon is not quite free from the exaggerated elegances of the Seicento, but already in his work we note the delicate and refined taste which distinguished Venetian apartments in the Settecento, and in his scheme of colour and the grace of his lines he produces new effects of a significance profounder than is usually recognised.

The Seicento expressed its spirit in the sumptuous- ness of the larger chambers; the Settecento found its expression in the furnishing of the smaller cabinets. Ballrooms and reception-rooms display a pompous mag- nificence in their enormous mirrors, their bright paint- ings, the damasks and tapestries ; but side by side with the great halls the noble owners began to arrange little cabinets full of taste and feminine delicacy.

The stuffs of the Seicento are large and fantastic in design, the colours vivid and blended in a violent harmony ; in the following century the patterns become small, the great foliage designs are replaced by bunches and festoons of flowers, the hues are pallid as in a pastel, they are usually pale greens, pistachio, blues, salmon colour, canary yellow, and produce the effect of sweet low music. Architectonic lines, colour, and moulding all go to create an exquisite harmony.

On the walls hang the works of Rosalba and Longhi, of Canaletto and Guardi ; the ceilings and doorways are adorned with stucco work of scrolls and garlands, either left white or touched up with gold, and form a setting for joyous dances of cupidons in the manner of Tiepolo. The heavy furni- ture of the Seicento, with its violent design, gives way to smooth and polished furniture in lacquer, of softly flowing lines and harmonious colour white and gold, rose and gold, green and gold.

Gold is used in abundance, but never produces a garish effect, and the method of gilding on a slightly prepared ground surpasses the gilding of any other country. A spirit of gaiety breathes from every piece of furniture ; little tables carved with amorini and wreaths ; coffers and wardrobes painted with flowers, birds, and ara- besques ; chairs and sofas with fantastic decoration and play of ornament, perhaps a trifle trivial, but still full of grace.

In the corners of the rooms stood fig- ures in Saxon and Venetian porcelain reflected in the mirrors which covered the walls. And as to the eye, so to the touch every object was pleasing, from the metal door and window-panels to the fire-irons ; the great fireplaces, where the logs gave out more smoke than heat, were replaced by smaller chimneys lined with tiles with figures and patterns in blue on white.

This graceful scheme of decoration was enhanced by the imitation of Chinese or Japanese designs, which were in great demand, thanks to their charm and originality. The production of these chinoiseries, made fashionable by Watteau and Boucher, was greatly as- sisted by the discovery of the chemist Bottger, who about the year succeeded in making, at Meissen in Saxony, a porcelain resembling Chinese. When the secret spread, even as far as Venice, china vases and their stands were at once imitated.

There is no department of painting that he does not touch ; throughout he dominates and conquers, and ceilings and walls are filled with his sublime creations.

Take, for example, the splendid ballroom of the Palazzo Labia, the palace, according to De Brosses, le mieax entendu en dedans, with its two masterpieces, " The Banquet of Cleopatra" and " The Embarkation of Antony and Cleopatra," painted in fresco between the architectural designs of Mengozzi- Colonna.

Cignaroli and Tiepoio painted the ceilings of the other chambers, which were adorned with pictures, silk damasks, and stamped leather, of such richness that tradition may well be right in placing the cost at one million one hundred and sixty-one thousand three hundred ducats.

Most of the furniture 1 See Remondini's Catalogues, where mention is made of copper-plates of Chinese subjects on fine paper intended to be applied to fruit dishes, boxes, and cabinets. So too in some of the villas of the mainland we still find the original mural adorn- ments, for example, the Soderini Villa at Nervesa, in the Trivigiano, and the Villa Rezzonico near Bassano.

The Soderini were a branch of the Florentine family which settled in Venice, and between and 1 they built a palace at Nervesa which they decorated with pictures by Tiepolo, Ganaletto, Battaglioli, and Zugno, and with stucco work by Mengozzi-Colonna and Car- rari.

The furniture has vanished, but the paintings and the fantastic stucco still remain. So too in the Villa Rezzonico, which belonged to the relations of Pope Clement, the furniture is gone, but the un- matched stuccoes still survive intact. They are spread all over the villa ; in delicate low relief they adorn the ceilings of the chambers ; in higher relief of foliage, volutes, masks, and Cupids they enrich the central hall, while in full relief and with superb brio of movement they lend a majesty and dignity to the doorways of the entrance hall.

Tt is our good fortune that the solitude of the country has saved many precious works of art from the ignorance of degenerate descendants and the rapacity of the dealers. These traces of a lost beauty enable us to reconstruct the charm of Venetian life ; and in this regard we must not omit to speak of the gondola, which at this epoch was so intimately connected with the habits of the upper classes. As horses and carriages were reserved for the 1 The beautiful mural decorations of a bedroom and alcove, dating from the beginning of the Settecento, in a house belonging to the Toderini in Ruga Giuffa at Santa Maria Formosa, were sold to a dealer.

In the Pa- lazzo Galbo-Crotta, until quite recently, there were preserved some rooms magnificently hung with damasks and cut velvets and containing bizarre Chinese decorations. All has been sold, and we are lucky to possess the photographs.

The Palazzo Quirini Stampalia and the Palazzo Rezzonico have two well-preserved bedrooms of the eighteenth century. All through the Seicento the government endeavoured to put down the use of satin and lace in the linings , of felze covered with silk and sarsenet, with braid and tufts of silk , mountings of inlaid ivory and ebony 3 , liveries of silk embroidered with gold and silver i Gondoliers and lacqueys who infringed the rule were placed for an hour in the pillory and were then sent to serve in the galleys for three years.

Lo stesso succede ad un cittadino di casa Noris d'un abito soverchiamente pomposo ; fattolo inoltre passar in segreta come trasgressore de' patrii statuti. No law placed any restriction on the sumptuousness of ambassadorial gondolas.

The Tuscan del Teglia writes on February a4, file 3o4i, fol. Amelot, contains the following description of the gondolas of the French Ambassador, Amelot de Gournay, when, in September, , he made his entry into Venice: Les felches et toute la garniture de dedans, avec les tapis et les carreaux, estoient de velours cramoisy a la premiere, et de bleu a la seconde, en broderie d'or d'un fort beau dessin et fort bien executed Les trois autres estoient aussi enrichies de plusieurs figures et ornements de sculpture d'or et noir, et garnies de Jamas.

With the close of the Seicento the gondola, which had found its way even into France, 1 came to assume the sim- plicity and elegance of the modern vessel, even in its orna- ments. The two ferri at bow and stern, charged with bosses, pyramids, and flowers, now gave place to a single ferro at the bow, with a large flat blade above, but cut into teeth lower down.

Fennebresque, La Petite Venise. The idea of making this present came from the Vene- tian ambassador, Francesco Michiel. Michiel had visited Versailles along with the king, and when walking in the park had remarked that gondolas seemed made for those waters ; whereat the king smiled graciously. This was reported to Venice, where the hint was acted upon. De Nolhac, La creation de Versailles, p. The praises of the gondola were even made the theme of a poem in Latin hexam- eters by the Spaniard Emanuele de Azevedo, who tells one how to get into the gondola, how to sit in it, how to recline among the cushions, 1 or, as the Venetians say, gondolar, a word which in the vernacular means " to lie at one's ease.

The cushions of the gondola stramazzetti cost 60 lire, the felze , and all other fittings are noted, down to the braid, buttons, and silk stockings of the gondoliers. Non caput exterius, non dextra incauta vagetur, Intus adesse sat est ; ferro nam saepe minaci Cymba inopina tuae adlambit latus obvia cymbae.

It may have been vanity tempered with patriotic pride which led to such lavish expenditure on the honours paid to distinguished stran- gers, but it was mere pride of caste which inspired the ostentation of private entertainments devoid of any special pretext. As in the days in which splendour was based on solid wealth, so now the palaces frequently resounded to music and the dance. The display was the same, but its form had changed; the free and light dance of the Cinquecento had given place to more sedate measures, which had all the appearance of a promenade, where ladies and gentlemen proceeded from one chamber to another accompanied by the strains of an orchestra.

Hard by the ballroom were other chambers for gaming and for music. Another Frenchman of the seventeenth century describes the Venetian ladies dancing: Banquets of ceremony, too, were served with exces- sive sumptuousness. French cookery, indeed, was not unknown even as early as the sixteenth century, when Pierre Buffet, the friend of Berni, after coming to Italy in the train of his king, refused to leave that pleasant land, and found a place in the service of Giovan Matteo Ghiberti, Bishop of Verona, whose secretary Berni was.

Venice, too, adopted French cookery, though the innovation met with some opposition down to the last among Venetian urmets, who complained that the viands were so dis- guised and mixed with a hundred drugs that it was im- possible to distinguish the flesh or the fish one was soil retourn6 au lieu ou on les a prises. Les instrumcns n'y manquent pas ; mais tellement disposez dans chaque appartement, que Ton n'entend qu'une seule melodie. Dans 1'une il y aura une Theorbe, dans 1'autre une Angelique ; dans celle-cy une Epinelte, dans celle-la un Violon et un Cistre ; et aussi autant de changement que vous faites de chambres, vous trouvez autant de changemens de ton et des notes.

The most highly prized fish was eagerly sought, both in the sea and in lakes and rivers hundreds of miles away ; on the table appeared the earliest vegetables and fruits. Mark's Day peas were brought from Genoa, those of the estuary being not yet ripe.

On one table were served the soup and the entree ; the guests then passed into the second room, where they found the roast and the solid foods ; in the third were spread the sweets, the dessert, the fruit and ices.

There 1 Zanetti, Gir. Ora 1'aglio e le cipolle sono molto alia mod a, ed entrano in quasi tutti i piatti, e le carni ed i pesci sono talmente trasformati, che appena si riconoscono quando giungono in tavola.

Tutto e mascherato e mescolato con cento erbe, droghe, sughi ed altro. Vanilla, Canelin, Maraschino, Elizir Vitae. A great display of banners, torches, and flambeaux usually opened a funeral cortege 2 ; damasks and tapes- tries and carpets hung from the windows ; in the shop windoAvs were displayed eulogies and portraits of the deceased ; in the church a catafalque entirely in keeping 1 As a pendant we may quote another anecdote from Renier-Michiel Feste Ven.

The lady never even looked at them, nor did her husband stir from his seat ; but the king was so covered with confusion that he made as though he would stoop to pick them up. The husband, however, forestalled him ; rising from his seat and pretending not to notice the pearls, he strode on them, crushing and scattering them with his feet. Gaterina continued her dance with the king and never alluded to the episode.

The funeral proces- sion of the Doge Mocenigo is thus described by the ducal chaplain: The procession lasted six hours. The whole city took part as spectator of the sad but magnificent ceremony. The noble family spared no expense to honour the dead. All the domestics and dependents to the number of eighty were dressed in mourning from head to foot, and the amount of wax candles distributed reached the total of sixteen thousand pounds' weight. Mocenigo, Lett, del cappell. The survivors not only dressed themselves in the deepest mourning, they even put the house in mourning, and the chambers Avere hung in mourning weeds of great cost.

At the doors of the rich gathered crowds of the people, to whom were distributed doles ; in the monastery kitchens huge caldrons of beans were ladled out to the poor, and this custom gave rise to the habit among the well-to-do of making a present to their friends of a certain kind of confectionery called beans fave.

Traditional customs, both in childbirth and in bap- tism, were jealously observed with greater sumptu- ousness. In vain the government endeavoured to prohibit costly banquets and entertainments, the ex- travagance in linen trimmed with valuable laces, the sheets embroidered in silk and silver-thread, the exces- sive number of sponsors, who occasionally reached a 1 la the will of Morosina Morosini Grimani we have the inventory of the mournings for the Dogaressa's room after the death of her husband: Bona sera ai vivi E riposo ai poveri morti ; Bon viagio ai naveganti bona note a tutti quanti.

Contarini took his place under a rich and majestic baldachino ; he wore his senatorial robes with a stole of cloth of gold, and acted as proxy for Ladislaus, King of Poland, after whom the child was named, as Martinioni tells us, and adds that the christening Avas regal in its splendour, accompanied with excellent music and fanfares of drums and trumpets, while a crowd of citizens and cavalieri and other personages from the mainland attended the ceremony. Marriage among the patricians had not essentially changed its character ; old customs still prevailed.

The marriage tie was considered not so much a union of hearts as an alliance between conspicuous families and a combination of interests, though this was not more the case in Venice than elsewhere throughout Europe, and we need not conclude that the wedded couple usually went to the altar without personal acquaintance ; indeed we frequently find a marriage which had been only arranged was deferred in order to allow the pair to get to know each other and to fall in love.

Saint-Didier La Ville et la Rfy. Woe 's me I " Oh 1 che brutto muso! Mi go da star con ti? Oibb 1 In the eighteenth century we hear the same story: Afin que cela ne vous fasse pas de peine, il faut que vous mettiez dans 1'esprit, que les mariages ne se font pas icy dans les mesme viies qu'on a par tout ail- leurs ; il n'est question ni d'amour, ni d'aflection, ni d'estime.

S'il se rencontre quelque chose de semblable, a la bonne heure; mais il ne s'agit que de 1'alliance, ou de la fortune: Barelli Gl'Italiani o sia relaz. Baretti, in his An Account of the Manners and Customs of Italy, the translation of which we have just quoted, defends the Italians against the attacks of the English surgeon, Samuel Sharp, author of certain Letters on Italy Before her wedding the bride would receive from her mother a pearl necklace, which she was expected to wear continually during the first year of her marriage.

The ceremony of " giving the pearls" was carried out in the presence of many friends. In the case of a marriage in the Doge's family, on the appointed day his Serenity and the Dogaressa entered the banqueting-hall, and taking their seats on lofty thrones proceeded to place the pearls round the neck of the bride elect.

In the eighteenth century we find Rossi Race. The ceremonies accompanying a wedding in the ducal family are described by Giovanni Davanzo, chamber- lain to the Doge, on the occasion of the betrothal of Alvise Mocenigo, son of the reigning Doge, with Francesca Grimani April, The Doge and Dogaressa went to visit the fiancee of their son. At four o'clock they entered their gondola with crystal glasses and cushions of crimson velvet embroidered with gold; their second son, Cavaliere Marc' Antonio, entered the gondola with them.

His Serenity took his seat to the right in the gondola. In the second gondola was the Cavaliere his Excellency Alvise Mocenigo III, brother of the Doge, along with the bridegroom, the Gavaliere Alvise Mocenigo, eldest son of the Doge; in the third gondola the chamberlain, majordomo, and two equer- ries; in the fourth gondola two more equerries and two gentlemen-in- waiting.

When the cortege arrived at Ca' Grimani, the Doge's gondola stopped and the others passed up to the great door ; the suite landed first, and then the relations.

The Doge and Dogaressa found waiting to receive them Sig. Domenico Grimani and Sig. Lorenzo, brothers of the late Doge Francesco, son of the late Cavaliere, Marc' Antonio, also Marc' Antonio, Savio of the Council, father of the bride, along with Antonio Domenico and all the bride's brothers. All these walked beside his Serenity and the Dogaressa.

The bride kneeled on a velvet cushion to receive her parents' benediction and that of her nearer relations. The wedding itself was frequently celebrated by the do- mestic chaplain in the palace of the bridegroom ; after the ceremony the pair kissed each other, while the guests assembled in the great hall shouted, Basa, basa Kiss, kiss as if to wish the couple joy.

The bride took her seat at the right, and her mother to the left. The master of the cere- monies then served refreshments on golden plate to their Serenities and their suites. Meantime the attendants also were served with biscuits, sweet waters, and chocolate, in the great room near the entrance.

They reached the palace at half-past four, accompanied by the bridegroom, and were received by the ducal servants in splendid liveries, then by the household. Marc' Antonio, brother of the bride, descended the steps of the water entrance and gave his hand to his sister, who was then handed on to the bridegroom, while Marc' Antonio gave his hand to the mother. At the top of the first flight of stairs they were met by Sig. Alvise III, brother of the Doge, and many ladies, and were accompanied to the private andience chamber, where they found the Dogaressa awaiting them, seated on a chair with a carpeted footstool.

She placed the pearls on the bride's neck and gave her a kiss. Then followed sumptuous refresh- ments. Before sitting down to the nuptial banquet the bride changed her wedding-dress of white silk or silver cambric for a robe more fully adorned with pearls, gems, and lace, while the ladies of her family changed their black for coloured gowns.

The trousseaux were of extravagant richness, and the govern- ment never ceased to issue prohibitions against robes of cloth of gold, drawers of cloth of silver, and other sumptuous dresses ' ' which only served to feed the vanity of the wearer," 3 and they bound on oath the ballerina, the dressmaker, and the tiring-woman of the bride to denounce any contravention.

The apart- ments of that magnificent palace on the Grand Canal, which Longhena was then building, were thrown open for an entertainment, thus described by Ivanovich, who was an eye-witness: The chandelier, with its branches of rock crys- tal, lit up the splendid apartment, while in a neighbour- ing chamber were mirrors and brackets also in rock crystal, between gorgeous hangings.

Hundreds of great candelabra and candlesticks of silver heightened the 1 Lamberti, Mem. Decree of May 6, Decree of March 20, I heard the Nuncio say, ' Why, this is a lodging for a king. A new but striking device was invented, namely, to make the gon- doliers line the entrance from the steps of the water door to the great staircase, with huge flambeaux in their hands, standing there motionless till the close of the function ; on the staircase itself the grooms fulfilled the same duty, and thus, besides making a brave show in themselves, they amply lighted the approach to the great hall without having to run up and down with lights, as is usual.

Paolina Badoer Mocenigo, who selected the clothes, makes mention of gold and silver brocades, laces, and embroidery. Here jewels are not mentioned, but in the note of the property of another Mocenigo bride, a Contarini, we find a brilliants, weighing grains; pearls, weighing carats; 54 emeralds, weighing 42 carats; and rubies. Molmenti, La Dogaressa di Venezia, p. For further details of the luxury lavished on patrician weddings, see Appendix, Doc.

B, the Registro di tulte le spese occorse per I'allestimento di S. The following document, which we give in the original, is also curious: Spese per la Fonzione de' Sponsali del N. Marin Zorzi con la N. Contarina Barbarigo September 26, Pieuano per le Candelle L. Rocco per spesa di Porto e recognizione delli n. Sposi sotto li Cussini per recogi- zione ai Rd. On Sunday the bride was brought to the Mocenigo palace at San Stae, about the hour of dinner, accompanied by all the ladies of the Grimani family and received by all the ladies of the Mocenigo family ; and all, with their attendant gentlemen, were entertained at a splendid banquet.

Mocenigo, Lettere del cappellano ducale April, These verses, in which " certain cultured swans of Italy " describe the dress of a young girl on her wedding day, give us a good idea of the times, the fashions, and the customs. As the cost of weddings went up, so did the amount of the dowry. Sister Arcangela Tarabotti, writing about the middle of the Seicento and speaking of the dowers of the wealthy middle class, which at that time usually ran to about one thousand ducats, 1 declares that " a woman is a cross no one adores unless well "gilded.

Marco per parte si del IN. Giacomo Marcello suo Pad. Marco e Pietro Zij promettono che il N. Pietro Figlio, e Nipote rispetivo accettera e riceuera p. Chiara, alii quali N. Per dote ueramente e nome di dote promette il N. Giacomo Marcello Padre ducati quaranta mille nel modo infrascritto: It is true that there were some families who preserved intact the ancient devotion to the purity of family affections, and within whose sumptuous palace walls the tranquil joys, the sorrows and sacrifices of family life pursued their course, too little noticed by the historian of the State.

The painters of the eighteenth century have thus preserved for us the Pisani, Rezzonico, and Albrizzi family groups. But in other cases "no sooner were the bonds of holy matrimony tied than we find the couple voluntarily abandoning the nuptial couch and pursuing other extraneous loves," to use the words of a physi- cian who occupied himself with psychical problems. Giacomo Marcello Padre accetta, e riceve, e promette quella in caso di restituzione che Dio S.

In somma 1'espurgo delle scopature della casa dotante. E cio che importa, se rendono due, si calcolano come se rendessero sei per la vicendevole vanita, che la Dote import! Cicogna, who published a fragment per nozze Levi-Morpurgo. In Venetian usage divorce, however, is used in its true signification in canon and civil law, namely, separation. Annulment of the marriage, on the other hand, allowed the parties to marry again if the marriage had not all the qualities required by canon law.

Petitions both for separation divorzio and for annulment came before the ecclesiastical authorities; but the Republic insisted that the parties should be represented by lay advocates, and that no process for separation or divorce could be in- itiated without a previous petition to the Council of Ten.

All the same it was not difficult to obtain either a separation or a divorce. For instance, from August 20, , to August ao, , we find two hundred and ninety-three cases of separation and twenty-two of nul- lity. Canon law does not con- template such a ground, and limits itself to cases of contagious disease and especially of leprosy, though it did not deprive the unfortunate leper of all his conjugal rights: Uxor viro leproso tenetur redder e debilam, non tamen ei cohabitare.

The Republic, seeing that divorce was too readily granted by the ecclesiastical authority, thought it neces- sary to exercise its civil authority more actively, on the ground that marriage, being a civil contract and inti- mately connected with the constitution of society, came properly within the purview of the secular authority. But the Republic acutely observed that ecclesiastics did not always possess the practical knowl- edge of the various relations between the component parts of the State, 1 nor did it desist from its efforts to not based on plausible grounds, and they proceed: On July 27, , the Council of Ten declares itself: The Ten further declare that in all petitions for separation the canonical grounds must be set forth clearly and with precision.

They also require to be precisely informed of the faults alleged by each party against the other, so that, should those faults amount to breaches of law, the accused may be com- mitted for trial, though the ecclesiastical procedure shall still continue its course. Arch, di Stato, Cons, dei X, Comune, n. X, Cons, e Mem. It is worth noting that the Consultori considered divorce a less evil than too easy separation. Every time a marriage is declared void through the ignorance or wickedness of the contracting parties what evils inevitably follow I A sacrament profaned, oaths taken before the altar broken, religion offended, two persons who had vowed to love one another for ever rendered foes, the aim of matrimony deluded, the interests, honour, and peace of a family ruined, the preservation and education of offspring im- perilled, public morals damaged, in short, the most essential interests of THE FAMILY IN ITS CUSTOMS 3 7 check divorce suits which ' ' destroy the interests, honour, and peace of families.

Some few patrician families preserved their patrimony by a wise adminis- tration, 2 but many more purchased the appearance of aristocratic luxury at the price of financial disaster. Whole fortunes were eaten up in clothes, extravagances, gaming, and pleasures. Their vanity would not allow them to acquire fresh riches by trade and industry or by cutting down superfluous expenses, and many a noble family light-heartedly squandered the savings of its ancestors.

The wife's property was usually admin- istered apart from the husband's, and it was customary Church and State infringed. And this appalling series of misfortunes is augmented in the case of separation, which is the more pernicious as it is the more frequent ; for separation does not give back to the parties their original liberty and thus allow them to remarry, but holds them apart and yet united, it relaxes the bond but does not break it, while it holds two young lives to an involuntary celibacy and exposes them to a continual neglect of their duties, breeding implacable enmity and sometimes the extinction of an illustrious race.

Arch, di Stato, Gapi Cons. The document is entitled Bilanzo dello scosso e speso fatto per conto delta N. Andriana Grimani Lin sopra le rendite in essa pervenute doppo la morte del N. Michiel Angela Lin The income from rents in town and country, and interest on capital amounted to lire , I have selected the following items of expenditure, as they chiefly affect the housekeeping: A Salariati diversi L.

All' Esattor Scarpa L. Alii Padri Teatini per anniversario. Mortgages burdened their house property, and creditors clamoured for payment. These loans were one of the chief causes of the sudden ruin of many families at the fall of the Republic ; when Napoleon suppressed the monasteries, he fore- closed the mortgages, and the nobles had to part with their estates at wretched prices to satisfy the govern- ment, which would not wait.

And this ruinous care- lessness could not be counteracted by the curious niggardliness occasionally to be met with, false economy which permitted squandering on mere outward show ' In Mobili, cioe una Todeschina, e L. Spese per conti diversi L. Even in their wills, where, as a rule, the human spirit is apt to show itself in its true colours, the gulf between patrician and plebeian is strongly marked.

Faithful servants are usually pen- sioned, it is true, but never or rarely do they receive any little memento to remind them of their master, just as though their birth and education debarred them from the finer feelings.

For instance, a Dolfin spent thousands of lire on a hot-house for his country-seat, but tried to recoup himself by cutting down the gardener's wages. The Dogaressa Mocenigo, in , consented to act as godmother to the daughter of the Governor of Gordignano, but she let him know that he must be content with bare honour, as she had no intention of making a present.

Yet it was the same Mocenigo family that spent forty thousand lire over the fetes for the election of Pietro as Procurator of San Marco. Item doi coltre, una bianca ed una di color, bone.

Item doi filzade, cioe una di griso rosso, et una bianca da Roma, bone. On the other hand, if the patricians of senatorial rank behaved harshly and proudly towards the im- poverished nobility or towards the rich citizens whom the needs of the State had raised to the patriciate, they did not disdain to treat the people with famil- iarity, being assured that the lower classes would never presume to take advantage of such condescension.

And it frequently happened that a noble would accept the position and relationship of godfather to a child of the people. Fu stabilito pel battesimo il dopo pranzo. Barba Nicolo alle ore aa circa venne da me vestito da gala con superbo tabarro bleu, ch' egli conservava con es- trema diligenza e che in tre anni non aveva mai toccato pioggia.

II tempo era minaccioso ed io glieP ho pronosticato. Rispose negativamente e ci ponemmo in viaggio per Castello. Pervenuti a mezza strada comincio a piovigginare, egli affrettava il passo, ed io ridevo fra me ; fattasi poi pioggia dirotta, diedesi a gambe, dicendo che si affrettava, affine di avvertire che recassero il bambino in barca per tradurlo in chiesa. Passarono alcuni mo- menti e me Io vidi ricomparire con tabarro ordinarissimo e con altro cap- pello.

Gompiuto il ceremoniale vollero a tutta forza che mi recassi dalla puerpera e ci andai. La trovai in istanzetta decente, in buon letto, con lenzuola di buona tela di bucato, e cuscini con guarnizione e merletti. Era vestita di bianco con cuffia in testa e parecchi anelli nelledita.

Fatti alcuni semplici e lieti discorsi con la puerpera, e quei della casa intervenuti nella camera, sopraggiunto il canonico che battezzo, ci portarono acqua di cedro, cafle con guantiera che sembrava d'argento e varie maniere di ciambelle. Finalmente giunse il cipro, che si disse squisito, ma io non ne bevetti. Mi trattenni alcun poco ancora, indi mi licenziai dalla brigata.

Patricians would also act as sponsors for converted Jews who would assume their godfather's name. Hence the frequency of patrician names among the people. Whoever failed to do so was held all but a parricide and despicable as a coward.

The attitude of the patricians was suggested to them by political and social reasons rather than by kindly feeling ; but the result was the same, namely, a close bond of union between the nobles and the people.

There was no haughty com- mand on the one side, no servile obedience on the other, but rather a kind of rivalry in giving orders gently and in carrying them out cheerfully. At the close of the Seicento a foreigner observes with surprise that ' ' liberty is so great throughout the entire domains of the Republic that a master has not the right to thrash his valet" 1 ; and in truth there were but few cases in which we find an insolent noble so far for- getting himself as to strike an inferior.

This familiarity between the two classes, which in reality were so profoundly divided, permitted even of practical joking. Benigna, in his Memorie, gives us an example. The Loggetta of the Campanile, when it was not being used by the Procurators on guard during sittings of the Great Council, was intrusted to the bell- ringer for his private use.

One day in February, , the Procurator, Girolamo Giustinian, begged the bell- ringer to grant him the loan of the terrace on the top of the Loggetta, whence he and his friends might wit- ness the show of Maundy Thursday. The bell-ringer replied that as he paid the rent he intended to keep the Loggetta for his own use ; to which his Excellency retorted, ' ' You are quite right ; you are master of the 1 Payen, Les Voy. A ma- licious foreigner observes with sardonic pleasure that, on the broglio, by the doors of the Palace, those who in the Senate chamber had sued for favours and been re- fused were welcomed with embraces and kisses by the 1 Benigna, Mem.

La Republique de Venise agit envers ses citoyens comme une mere tendre, mais severe, qui veut accabler ses enfants de bienfaits, et qui cependant, jalouse de son autorite", ne leur permet point de penetrer dans ses desseins. I membri di un' aristocrazia non possono essere suscettibili di questi teneri sentimenti, perche la loro rivalita nella magistratura li rende insensibili ad ogni altra cosa, e per conseguenza alle dolcezze dell' amicizia.

A high conception of the greatness of their state was rooted in the minds of the patricians, but rather as a matter of personal pride than as a source of counsel and aid against doubt and weakness. The malicious observer quoted above tells us how a Senator, finding his son reading the history of France, took the book from his hands, exclaiming, " You blockhead, study the history of your own Republic, and leave the rest alone.

Such distinguished personages as Marco Foscarini and Paolo Renier were not above using bribery to secure election to the Dukedom, though in their case the motive was a noble desire to dedicate themselves to their country's service, whereas in others it was the merest personal vanity, and they fulfilled their constitu- 1 Amelot de la Houssaye, Hist, du Gouv. The earlier Venetians, vigorous in character, sought their fortunes where they could find them, but their flaccid descendants, finding all the com- forts of life secured to them by the toil of their ances- tors, abandoned themselves to the silence and the quiet of their native city; they ate punctually, made love with- out passion, and begat children who repeated the lives of their parents.

But this feverish activity could not cloak the enfeeblement of spirit and of moral fibre. Beckford, the Englishman, for example, tells us of Senators who, after addressing the House, tak- ing a walk in the Piazza, passing from one gambling- saloon to another till dawn, would take to the gondola, 1 Giovanni Pindemonte, enrolled in the Venetian patriciate, says: Pregai curto, Pregai cwto, ed e cagione di tal letizia il potersi piu tosto alle lor gozzoviglie restituire.

At eleven the Great Council met; they would don their robe and periwig, and rush off to the Palace. But all this activity, which, even if fruitless, would still be an indication of vitality, did not deceive the acute English observer.

These brief moments of a false and morbid activity were due to an effort of nerves exhausted by antecedent debauch ; the need for restorative slumber, combated by an im- moderate indulgence in coffee, rendered the Venetians feeble and flaccid, and the temptation to abandon them- selves to the ease of the gondola fostered this indolence, which was almost as marked as among the orientals, who, thanks to their abuse of opiates and the harem, pass their lives in a perpetual stupor.

In early Venice the mixture, first with the Romans then with the Greeks, helped the development of the race ; but as time went on, it began to feel the evil consequences of that intimate conjunction inside each social class in the State, imposed on it both by its rigidly aristocratic or- ganization and by the nature of its site, which pre- vented permanent immigration or emigration. During the closing years of the Republic, when the habit of making large dowries was beginning to tell on family estates, it became the custom to make matrimonial alli- ances only with families who could give as much as they received ; this led to frequent marriages between persons not only of the same social caste, but also of the same stock, 2 and this was the chief cause of the degeneration of the race.

Certain physical and mental qualities of the ancient aristocracy were transmitted, it is true ; the 1 Beckford, Italy, cit. Some of the nobles still pre- served that imprint of severity which distinguishes the portraits by Titian and Veronese 1 ; and this exterior aspect was not entirely belied by the inner character, for the Venetian patriciate had not fallen so low but that it could furnish examples of moral and intellectual worth, even in its last years.

Religious sentiment, which if sincere, has a powerful effect on the life of a nation, had little virtue now to correct and raise the general tone. So intimate a part does the supernatural play in the life of a people that we find all the great republics of the Middle Ages obeying the instinct to create a national saint ; as at Genoa they chose St.

George, so at Venice they selected St. Mark, and the Lion of the Evangelist gathered and guarded under his wing all the glories of the lagoon Republic. But a people which has accepted a single religion is apt to decline along with the decline and corruption of that cult; the efficacy of the religious 1 Moore, Lettres d'un voyag. And even scurrilous Goudar, in his Espion Chinois, after noting the vices of the nobles, is forced to conclude thus: The forms of Ca- tholicism grew old in their immobility, nor did the reactionary discipline of the Council of Trent avail to lend them fresh vigour.

Porno mere fille escort pologne -

Disordini et Big ass mature escort girl vivastreet de Venetia, cit. Le povere signore, per pagar e continuar a divertirsi, erano ridotte a divertir gli altri quasi palesamente. Fennebresque, La Petite Venise. Full text of " Venice: Another Frenchman of the seventeenth century describes the Venetian ladies dancing:

Giovanni e Paolo the style has left its traces in the chapel of San Domenico, in the monument of the Valier designed by Tirali, and in the high altar by Matteo Carnero. The same tendency makes itself felt in the decoration of patrician houses, in the furniture, the utensils, the bronzes, plate, ivories, glass, in short, in all the objects of domestic luxury.

But in Venice barocco, and later on rococo, are stamped by a vitality and originality all their own, not so much in the architecture as in the decoration of the houses. The straight line, with its suggestion of strong will, disappears from the chambers, and its place is taken by volutes, flourishes, scrolls, waving lines, which grow ever more and more pronounced, and seem to correspond to that unrest, indecision, con- fusion, which is the note of the epoch reluctant to bridle its passions.

Even where, by some rare chance, a little garden spread its greenery by the side of a Gothic or Lombardesque pal- ace, letting the warm brown of the brickwork appear through the branches, a new style of gardening was introduced, box trees cut into strange forms, climbing roses trailing over the walls, flowers of every species and colour in the borders. Marble groups of suggestive sub- jects in violent movement, nymphs and goddesses with arms outstretched in invitation, rose among green and flowering shrubs ; the gateways displayed elaborate wrought-iron gates with coats of arms and coronets.

The entrance halls of the old palaces, where by the side of the painted wooden benches stood trophies of pikes and halberds, the great lanterns of the galleys, and the huge armorial bearings of the family, produced a chilly feeling of melancholy in a generation steeped in luxury, who preferred to promenade in ample court- yards and colonnades of marble, such as are to be seen in the Pesaro and Rezzonico palaces, built by Longhena in the Seicento, or in the Palazzo Grassi, by Domenico Rossi, or the Palazzo Cornaro della Regina by Massari, both belonging to the eighteenth century.

Martinioni, in his Aggiunte to the Venetia of Sansovino, published in 1 , cites other courts and vestibules which no longer exist, and records how the taste of the day tended to transform gardens into sumptuous cortiles adorned with statues and filled with the perfume of delitiose piante. Such was the famous garden of the Morosini at San Canciano, "which was uprooted and paved in brick, with a beautiful pattern in white marble running through it, so that the whole garden was turned into a spacious cortile surrounded by lofty and handsome buildings.

In the internal decoration a greater display of pomp, which had now become a law more rigidly observed than governmental decrees, took the place of the severer splendours of the Cinquecento. The chief medium of the new art was stucco. Malleable and obedient to the pressure of the hurrying hand, it lent itself admirably to the inventive caprice of the artist and to the leafy richness of the decorative style.

Already by the close of the Seicento the ceilings and walls of the Ducal Palace had been adorned with splendid stucco work ; the vault of the Scala d'oro was admirably designed by Alessandro Vittoria, who decorated Sansovino's Library with a still finer scheme.

But the boldness of this great master degenerated, in his followers and imitators, into exaggerated audacity, though even so their work was not lacking in a certain grandiosity and grace. From the cornice the stucco springs away and covers the whole ceiling with an exuberance of foliage and scroll work.

Sometimes, amid flowers and foliage, flourishes and scrolls, ribbons and bows, there opens out, in the middle of the ceiling, a great frame of stucco enclosing a painting, in which muscular deities and provocative nymphs are confused in a writhing mass of forms. At other times the ceiling curves and spreads downward like a canopy held up by a rout of amorini and chubby Cupids.

Again, the architect of the Seicento would leave untouched the construction and the mouldings of the Renaissance, but would fill in the compartments of the ceiling with masks, monsters, bosses, scrolls, fruit and flowers, carved in wood left natural or gilded.

The Sala del Collegio, designed by Antonio da Ponte, in the Ducal Palace was a frequent model for mural decoration, but the cornices, the jambs, and lintels of the doorways were still further enriched by curves, broken arches, and volutes.

Still more auda- cious innovators threw to the winds all traditions of the earlier style in the moulding of cornices and doorways ; they sought only sinuous and broken lines which should be in keeping with the decoration and followed only one law, the search for theatrical effect.

Martinioni, speaking of ' ' the more memorable buildings now in course of construction," mentions the Palazzo Cornaro Piscopia at San Luca, " rebuilt in some parts, and adorned with noble chambers decorated by handsome cornices of beautiful design and fine moulding. Cavazza was en- nobled in 1 65 3 and employed by the Republic on missions to various foreign courts. Let us hear Mar- tinioni himself give an account of this palace, for certain descriptions gain in truth and veracity when rehearsed by a contemporary in the style of his day.

The third floor, also well furnished, com- mands a wide view over two stretches of the lagoon. But the point which distinguishes this palace from all others is the apartment on the ground floor, admirably arranged; the space usually devoted to domestic offices has been turned into charming saloons, and the portico that leads to them has been embellished with five rows of precious sculptures.

In fact, when one enters, both eye and spirit are fascinated no less by the pure white of the vaulting of great height, and by its decoration of stucco festoons and figures and other beauties, than by the splendour of the fittings and the great variety of artistic objects on all sides.

To the right and left in the niches are statues, and between these on brackets stand heads and busts. A little further on are oval panels of cypress wood painted by the best masters of this city, such as the Cavaliere Liberi, Pietro Vecchia, Ruschi, and others. A carved frieze runs all round, and below it are bas-reliefs of great value, exquisite antiques on pedestals, great canvases by master hands, while a little higher up are four life-size figures by Gior- gione, most carefully executed ; under the windows are other reliefs, and octagonal pendants descend from the cornice.

In a great niche to the right is a Neptune with a dolphin at his feet, while on the ground stand two lions in precious marble.

Opposite the niche which holds the Neptune is another, all inlaid with mother-of-pearl, which shelters a group of two figures, Venus and Adonis in embrace, beautifully executed. The whole grotto is enclosed in iron railings with gilded lilies, so that no touch of refinement should be wanting, a refinement and rarity displayed also in the velvet- covered settees and chairs, in the portieres of double velvet, draping the doors of the long suite of rooms.

The gallery ends in a hall with six niches, six doors, and four windows, all stuccoed in white with roundels of white and red French marble connected by festoons. Upon tables of paragone and of ebony inlaid with ivory stand specimens of ancient and modern sculpture, well- cast bronzes, and other rarities.

The space of one of the doors is artistically filled with four great mirrors, each in six squares, with gilded metal frames. Next comes a loggia with columns and cornices of Verona marble, called mandolalo ; the ceiling is in stucco, and all round are scenes painted in gouache ; above these come pictures of birds, flowers, fruit, and game with Florentine mosaics of lapis lazuli and other precious stones.

You can leave this loggia by great windows which will shut, and you pass into a court- yard decorated by Brescian artists l and green with great orange trees, Three handsomely carved doors open into the last apartment, which is vaulted in brick, the ceiling being divided into compartments and stuc- coed, while stucco-fluted columns with five niches i In the seventeenth century the Brescian artists were famous for their architectural designs which they painted on the walls of courtyards.

Many palaces in Brescia are so decorated with long architectural perspectives. Of all this wealth of art nothing now remains to us but the rude phrases of Martinioni, and amid the havoc and changes wrought by man and by time we can find only here and there scattered traces of all this past magnificence. In the Palazzo Pesaro is a ceiling of the Seicento, with carved compartments, very well pre- served.

The centre is filled by a picture representing the Triumph of Venice, enclosed in an oval frame, which is designed in harmony with the other divisions of the roof, decorated with angels, amorini, and foliage, in the midst of which are the arms of the Pesaro family.

The other divisions also contain paintings and the fol- lowing inscription: Condidit et ornavit A. The Palazzo Albrizzi at Sant' Apollinare gives us a complete and beautiful example of Seicento decoration. The palace belonged to the citizen family of Bonomo and was built towards the close of the sixteenth century.

In 1 half of it, perhaps the piano nobile, was ac- quired by the Albrizzi, and the rest in The old Cinquecento Palace, of which one room still remains, was entirely remodelled inside and transformed by magnificent and fantastic decoration, ordered certainly after the year , at which date the Albrizzi were ad- mitted to the Patriciate. The stucco work is heavy, it is true, but judged by the ideas of that epoch, we must recognise both the genius and the fine taste of the unknown artists, who drew their inspiration from the work of Alessandro Vittoria.

The staircase, which is neither wide nor handsome, leads up to the central saloon, with doors and ceiling decorated with rich ornamentation. Around the door- ways of Istrian stone, carved in classical lines by stone- cutters of the sixteenth century, the stucco-workers of the following century modelled their foliage and capri- cious volutes.

On the ceiling and above the doors amorini and figures in high relief stand out in graceful poses. In the reception-rooms these anonymous artists lavished their inventive genius in a rich and graceful scheme of decoration.

Among others there is one square chamber which is a veritable poet's dream. The ceiling represents a great curtain ; it starts from an octagonal ornament in the centre, covers the entire surface and is caught up at the angles by eight colossal figures, and in the middle by four and twenty beauti- fully modelled cherubs, who in various attitudes are flying or dancing, or hiding under the folds of the canopy, which are skilfully and ingeniously indicated.

This joyous rout is, perhaps, the most vivacious scheme of decoration that ever passed through an artist's brain ; the style betrays the work of the Secentisti. The next room is clearly designed by modellers of the following century. Furniture, following the style of decoration employed on ceilings and walls, was also gradually modified.

Pieces of furniture in ebony, mahogany, walnut, were enriched with precious stones or plaques of porcelain, crystal, ivory, mosaic, or bronze. Inlayers, mosaicists, bronze-founders, engravers, and potters were all asso- ciated with the cabinet-maker in his trade. Frames, tables, lockers, cupboards, beds, chairs, stools, cabinets all are adorned with strange patterns, in ara- besque, leaves, sprays, tendrils, birds, animals, figures of chimaeras and sphinxes. This was a style which attracted strong though undisciplined natures, and it gives its special character to the work of Francesco Pianta, the creator of the fantastic row of stalls in the great hall of the Scuola di San Rocco, and that still more extravagant production the clock-frame preserved in the Sacristy of the Frari.

Under such a flood of ornamentation it was natural that furniture soon became 1 Ercole Udine, the Duke of Mantua's Ambassador in Venice, men- tions, in , ebonists who turned out furniture lustro come specchio ; for instance, six chests con projili di avorii di forme quadrate, which had each of them three niches with ivory figures of Jove, Venus and other heathen deities; also a bed with its sides reaching down to the ground.

The price asked for this furniture was seven thousand crowns. In an inventory of August 27, , stating the property belonging to Gaspare Malipiero Levi, Collez. The style called after Louis XIV i 71 5 was launched by the flaming fantasy of Charles le Brun ; it is exagger- ated and pompous, but original and impressive, and is little different from the best Italian barocco.

The style of Louis XV becomes lighter and more graceful, and retains its charm till it melts into the style of Louis XVI , where a vein of classicism begins to make itself felt and gradually asserts itself during the last years of the century. France, in- deed, can boast such masters in ebony and bronze as the sons of Andr6 Charles Boulle and Philippe Cafieri, Reisner, BoviUe, Cressent, Levasseur, Oe'ben, Bene- man, Saunier, and others, past-masters in the decora- tion of furniture ; but the work of Andrea Brustolon, born at Belluno , is no less rich in grace and fancy.

He was not only an able carver of figures in wood, but he created designs for the entire wood-work 1 Saint-Didier La Ville et la RJp. XVI , writing in , when he must have had occasion to see many apartments furnished in the style of the Seicento, says: II n'y a pas moins de deux cents pieces d'appartement toutes chargees de richesses dans le seul palais Foscarini ; mais tout se surmarche ; il n'y a pas un seul cabinet ni un fauteuil ou Ton puisse s'asseoir, a cause de la qe"licatesse.

The Cupids, admirably modelled, display vivacity of movement amid the bold curves of the decorative design, with its fauns and nymphs and chimaeras. Brustolon is not quite free from the exaggerated elegances of the Seicento, but already in his work we note the delicate and refined taste which distinguished Venetian apartments in the Settecento, and in his scheme of colour and the grace of his lines he produces new effects of a significance profounder than is usually recognised.

The Seicento expressed its spirit in the sumptuous- ness of the larger chambers; the Settecento found its expression in the furnishing of the smaller cabinets. Ballrooms and reception-rooms display a pompous mag- nificence in their enormous mirrors, their bright paint- ings, the damasks and tapestries ; but side by side with the great halls the noble owners began to arrange little cabinets full of taste and feminine delicacy.

The stuffs of the Seicento are large and fantastic in design, the colours vivid and blended in a violent harmony ; in the following century the patterns become small, the great foliage designs are replaced by bunches and festoons of flowers, the hues are pallid as in a pastel, they are usually pale greens, pistachio, blues, salmon colour, canary yellow, and produce the effect of sweet low music.

Architectonic lines, colour, and moulding all go to create an exquisite harmony. On the walls hang the works of Rosalba and Longhi, of Canaletto and Guardi ; the ceilings and doorways are adorned with stucco work of scrolls and garlands, either left white or touched up with gold, and form a setting for joyous dances of cupidons in the manner of Tiepolo. The heavy furni- ture of the Seicento, with its violent design, gives way to smooth and polished furniture in lacquer, of softly flowing lines and harmonious colour white and gold, rose and gold, green and gold.

Gold is used in abundance, but never produces a garish effect, and the method of gilding on a slightly prepared ground surpasses the gilding of any other country. A spirit of gaiety breathes from every piece of furniture ; little tables carved with amorini and wreaths ; coffers and wardrobes painted with flowers, birds, and ara- besques ; chairs and sofas with fantastic decoration and play of ornament, perhaps a trifle trivial, but still full of grace.

In the corners of the rooms stood fig- ures in Saxon and Venetian porcelain reflected in the mirrors which covered the walls. And as to the eye, so to the touch every object was pleasing, from the metal door and window-panels to the fire-irons ; the great fireplaces, where the logs gave out more smoke than heat, were replaced by smaller chimneys lined with tiles with figures and patterns in blue on white.

This graceful scheme of decoration was enhanced by the imitation of Chinese or Japanese designs, which were in great demand, thanks to their charm and originality.

The production of these chinoiseries, made fashionable by Watteau and Boucher, was greatly as- sisted by the discovery of the chemist Bottger, who about the year succeeded in making, at Meissen in Saxony, a porcelain resembling Chinese. When the secret spread, even as far as Venice, china vases and their stands were at once imitated. There is no department of painting that he does not touch ; throughout he dominates and conquers, and ceilings and walls are filled with his sublime creations.

Take, for example, the splendid ballroom of the Palazzo Labia, the palace, according to De Brosses, le mieax entendu en dedans, with its two masterpieces, " The Banquet of Cleopatra" and " The Embarkation of Antony and Cleopatra," painted in fresco between the architectural designs of Mengozzi- Colonna. Cignaroli and Tiepoio painted the ceilings of the other chambers, which were adorned with pictures, silk damasks, and stamped leather, of such richness that tradition may well be right in placing the cost at one million one hundred and sixty-one thousand three hundred ducats.

Most of the furniture 1 See Remondini's Catalogues, where mention is made of copper-plates of Chinese subjects on fine paper intended to be applied to fruit dishes, boxes, and cabinets.

So too in some of the villas of the mainland we still find the original mural adorn- ments, for example, the Soderini Villa at Nervesa, in the Trivigiano, and the Villa Rezzonico near Bassano. The Soderini were a branch of the Florentine family which settled in Venice, and between and 1 they built a palace at Nervesa which they decorated with pictures by Tiepolo, Ganaletto, Battaglioli, and Zugno, and with stucco work by Mengozzi-Colonna and Car- rari.

The furniture has vanished, but the paintings and the fantastic stucco still remain. So too in the Villa Rezzonico, which belonged to the relations of Pope Clement, the furniture is gone, but the un- matched stuccoes still survive intact.

They are spread all over the villa ; in delicate low relief they adorn the ceilings of the chambers ; in higher relief of foliage, volutes, masks, and Cupids they enrich the central hall, while in full relief and with superb brio of movement they lend a majesty and dignity to the doorways of the entrance hall. Tt is our good fortune that the solitude of the country has saved many precious works of art from the ignorance of degenerate descendants and the rapacity of the dealers.

These traces of a lost beauty enable us to reconstruct the charm of Venetian life ; and in this regard we must not omit to speak of the gondola, which at this epoch was so intimately connected with the habits of the upper classes. As horses and carriages were reserved for the 1 The beautiful mural decorations of a bedroom and alcove, dating from the beginning of the Settecento, in a house belonging to the Toderini in Ruga Giuffa at Santa Maria Formosa, were sold to a dealer.

In the Pa- lazzo Galbo-Crotta, until quite recently, there were preserved some rooms magnificently hung with damasks and cut velvets and containing bizarre Chinese decorations. All has been sold, and we are lucky to possess the photographs. The Palazzo Quirini Stampalia and the Palazzo Rezzonico have two well-preserved bedrooms of the eighteenth century. All through the Seicento the government endeavoured to put down the use of satin and lace in the linings , of felze covered with silk and sarsenet, with braid and tufts of silk , mountings of inlaid ivory and ebony 3 , liveries of silk embroidered with gold and silver i Gondoliers and lacqueys who infringed the rule were placed for an hour in the pillory and were then sent to serve in the galleys for three years.

Lo stesso succede ad un cittadino di casa Noris d'un abito soverchiamente pomposo ; fattolo inoltre passar in segreta come trasgressore de' patrii statuti. No law placed any restriction on the sumptuousness of ambassadorial gondolas.

The Tuscan del Teglia writes on February a4, file 3o4i, fol. Amelot, contains the following description of the gondolas of the French Ambassador, Amelot de Gournay, when, in September, , he made his entry into Venice: Les felches et toute la garniture de dedans, avec les tapis et les carreaux, estoient de velours cramoisy a la premiere, et de bleu a la seconde, en broderie d'or d'un fort beau dessin et fort bien executed Les trois autres estoient aussi enrichies de plusieurs figures et ornements de sculpture d'or et noir, et garnies de Jamas.

With the close of the Seicento the gondola, which had found its way even into France, 1 came to assume the sim- plicity and elegance of the modern vessel, even in its orna- ments. The two ferri at bow and stern, charged with bosses, pyramids, and flowers, now gave place to a single ferro at the bow, with a large flat blade above, but cut into teeth lower down.

Fennebresque, La Petite Venise. The idea of making this present came from the Vene- tian ambassador, Francesco Michiel. Michiel had visited Versailles along with the king, and when walking in the park had remarked that gondolas seemed made for those waters ; whereat the king smiled graciously. This was reported to Venice, where the hint was acted upon. De Nolhac, La creation de Versailles, p.

The praises of the gondola were even made the theme of a poem in Latin hexam- eters by the Spaniard Emanuele de Azevedo, who tells one how to get into the gondola, how to sit in it, how to recline among the cushions, 1 or, as the Venetians say, gondolar, a word which in the vernacular means " to lie at one's ease.

The cushions of the gondola stramazzetti cost 60 lire, the felze , and all other fittings are noted, down to the braid, buttons, and silk stockings of the gondoliers. Non caput exterius, non dextra incauta vagetur, Intus adesse sat est ; ferro nam saepe minaci Cymba inopina tuae adlambit latus obvia cymbae. It may have been vanity tempered with patriotic pride which led to such lavish expenditure on the honours paid to distinguished stran- gers, but it was mere pride of caste which inspired the ostentation of private entertainments devoid of any special pretext.

As in the days in which splendour was based on solid wealth, so now the palaces frequently resounded to music and the dance. The display was the same, but its form had changed; the free and light dance of the Cinquecento had given place to more sedate measures, which had all the appearance of a promenade, where ladies and gentlemen proceeded from one chamber to another accompanied by the strains of an orchestra.

Hard by the ballroom were other chambers for gaming and for music. Another Frenchman of the seventeenth century describes the Venetian ladies dancing: Banquets of ceremony, too, were served with exces- sive sumptuousness. French cookery, indeed, was not unknown even as early as the sixteenth century, when Pierre Buffet, the friend of Berni, after coming to Italy in the train of his king, refused to leave that pleasant land, and found a place in the service of Giovan Matteo Ghiberti, Bishop of Verona, whose secretary Berni was.

Venice, too, adopted French cookery, though the innovation met with some opposition down to the last among Venetian urmets, who complained that the viands were so dis- guised and mixed with a hundred drugs that it was im- possible to distinguish the flesh or the fish one was soil retourn6 au lieu ou on les a prises.

Les instrumcns n'y manquent pas ; mais tellement disposez dans chaque appartement, que Ton n'entend qu'une seule melodie. Dans 1'une il y aura une Theorbe, dans 1'autre une Angelique ; dans celle-cy une Epinelte, dans celle-la un Violon et un Cistre ; et aussi autant de changement que vous faites de chambres, vous trouvez autant de changemens de ton et des notes. The most highly prized fish was eagerly sought, both in the sea and in lakes and rivers hundreds of miles away ; on the table appeared the earliest vegetables and fruits.

Mark's Day peas were brought from Genoa, those of the estuary being not yet ripe. On one table were served the soup and the entree ; the guests then passed into the second room, where they found the roast and the solid foods ; in the third were spread the sweets, the dessert, the fruit and ices. There 1 Zanetti, Gir. Ora 1'aglio e le cipolle sono molto alia mod a, ed entrano in quasi tutti i piatti, e le carni ed i pesci sono talmente trasformati, che appena si riconoscono quando giungono in tavola.

Tutto e mascherato e mescolato con cento erbe, droghe, sughi ed altro. Vanilla, Canelin, Maraschino, Elizir Vitae. A great display of banners, torches, and flambeaux usually opened a funeral cortege 2 ; damasks and tapes- tries and carpets hung from the windows ; in the shop windoAvs were displayed eulogies and portraits of the deceased ; in the church a catafalque entirely in keeping 1 As a pendant we may quote another anecdote from Renier-Michiel Feste Ven.

The lady never even looked at them, nor did her husband stir from his seat ; but the king was so covered with confusion that he made as though he would stoop to pick them up. The husband, however, forestalled him ; rising from his seat and pretending not to notice the pearls, he strode on them, crushing and scattering them with his feet.

Gaterina continued her dance with the king and never alluded to the episode. The funeral proces- sion of the Doge Mocenigo is thus described by the ducal chaplain: The procession lasted six hours. The whole city took part as spectator of the sad but magnificent ceremony. The noble family spared no expense to honour the dead. All the domestics and dependents to the number of eighty were dressed in mourning from head to foot, and the amount of wax candles distributed reached the total of sixteen thousand pounds' weight.

Mocenigo, Lett, del cappell. The survivors not only dressed themselves in the deepest mourning, they even put the house in mourning, and the chambers Avere hung in mourning weeds of great cost. At the doors of the rich gathered crowds of the people, to whom were distributed doles ; in the monastery kitchens huge caldrons of beans were ladled out to the poor, and this custom gave rise to the habit among the well-to-do of making a present to their friends of a certain kind of confectionery called beans fave.

Traditional customs, both in childbirth and in bap- tism, were jealously observed with greater sumptu- ousness. In vain the government endeavoured to prohibit costly banquets and entertainments, the ex- travagance in linen trimmed with valuable laces, the sheets embroidered in silk and silver-thread, the exces- sive number of sponsors, who occasionally reached a 1 la the will of Morosina Morosini Grimani we have the inventory of the mournings for the Dogaressa's room after the death of her husband: Bona sera ai vivi E riposo ai poveri morti ; Bon viagio ai naveganti bona note a tutti quanti.

Contarini took his place under a rich and majestic baldachino ; he wore his senatorial robes with a stole of cloth of gold, and acted as proxy for Ladislaus, King of Poland, after whom the child was named, as Martinioni tells us, and adds that the christening Avas regal in its splendour, accompanied with excellent music and fanfares of drums and trumpets, while a crowd of citizens and cavalieri and other personages from the mainland attended the ceremony.

Marriage among the patricians had not essentially changed its character ; old customs still prevailed. The marriage tie was considered not so much a union of hearts as an alliance between conspicuous families and a combination of interests, though this was not more the case in Venice than elsewhere throughout Europe, and we need not conclude that the wedded couple usually went to the altar without personal acquaintance ; indeed we frequently find a marriage which had been only arranged was deferred in order to allow the pair to get to know each other and to fall in love.

Saint-Didier La Ville et la Rfy. Woe 's me I " Oh 1 che brutto muso! Mi go da star con ti? Oibb 1 In the eighteenth century we hear the same story: Afin que cela ne vous fasse pas de peine, il faut que vous mettiez dans 1'esprit, que les mariages ne se font pas icy dans les mesme viies qu'on a par tout ail- leurs ; il n'est question ni d'amour, ni d'aflection, ni d'estime.

S'il se rencontre quelque chose de semblable, a la bonne heure; mais il ne s'agit que de 1'alliance, ou de la fortune: Barelli Gl'Italiani o sia relaz. Baretti, in his An Account of the Manners and Customs of Italy, the translation of which we have just quoted, defends the Italians against the attacks of the English surgeon, Samuel Sharp, author of certain Letters on Italy Before her wedding the bride would receive from her mother a pearl necklace, which she was expected to wear continually during the first year of her marriage.

The ceremony of " giving the pearls" was carried out in the presence of many friends. In the case of a marriage in the Doge's family, on the appointed day his Serenity and the Dogaressa entered the banqueting-hall, and taking their seats on lofty thrones proceeded to place the pearls round the neck of the bride elect.

In the eighteenth century we find Rossi Race. The ceremonies accompanying a wedding in the ducal family are described by Giovanni Davanzo, chamber- lain to the Doge, on the occasion of the betrothal of Alvise Mocenigo, son of the reigning Doge, with Francesca Grimani April, The Doge and Dogaressa went to visit the fiancee of their son.

At four o'clock they entered their gondola with crystal glasses and cushions of crimson velvet embroidered with gold; their second son, Cavaliere Marc' Antonio, entered the gondola with them.

His Serenity took his seat to the right in the gondola. In the second gondola was the Cavaliere his Excellency Alvise Mocenigo III, brother of the Doge, along with the bridegroom, the Gavaliere Alvise Mocenigo, eldest son of the Doge; in the third gondola the chamberlain, majordomo, and two equer- ries; in the fourth gondola two more equerries and two gentlemen-in- waiting. When the cortege arrived at Ca' Grimani, the Doge's gondola stopped and the others passed up to the great door ; the suite landed first, and then the relations.

The Doge and Dogaressa found waiting to receive them Sig. Domenico Grimani and Sig. Lorenzo, brothers of the late Doge Francesco, son of the late Cavaliere, Marc' Antonio, also Marc' Antonio, Savio of the Council, father of the bride, along with Antonio Domenico and all the bride's brothers. All these walked beside his Serenity and the Dogaressa. The bride kneeled on a velvet cushion to receive her parents' benediction and that of her nearer relations. The wedding itself was frequently celebrated by the do- mestic chaplain in the palace of the bridegroom ; after the ceremony the pair kissed each other, while the guests assembled in the great hall shouted, Basa, basa Kiss, kiss as if to wish the couple joy.

The bride took her seat at the right, and her mother to the left. The master of the cere- monies then served refreshments on golden plate to their Serenities and their suites.

Meantime the attendants also were served with biscuits, sweet waters, and chocolate, in the great room near the entrance. They reached the palace at half-past four, accompanied by the bridegroom, and were received by the ducal servants in splendid liveries, then by the household.

Marc' Antonio, brother of the bride, descended the steps of the water entrance and gave his hand to his sister, who was then handed on to the bridegroom, while Marc' Antonio gave his hand to the mother. At the top of the first flight of stairs they were met by Sig. Alvise III, brother of the Doge, and many ladies, and were accompanied to the private andience chamber, where they found the Dogaressa awaiting them, seated on a chair with a carpeted footstool.

She placed the pearls on the bride's neck and gave her a kiss. Then followed sumptuous refresh- ments. Before sitting down to the nuptial banquet the bride changed her wedding-dress of white silk or silver cambric for a robe more fully adorned with pearls, gems, and lace, while the ladies of her family changed their black for coloured gowns.

The trousseaux were of extravagant richness, and the govern- ment never ceased to issue prohibitions against robes of cloth of gold, drawers of cloth of silver, and other sumptuous dresses ' ' which only served to feed the vanity of the wearer," 3 and they bound on oath the ballerina, the dressmaker, and the tiring-woman of the bride to denounce any contravention. The apart- ments of that magnificent palace on the Grand Canal, which Longhena was then building, were thrown open for an entertainment, thus described by Ivanovich, who was an eye-witness: The chandelier, with its branches of rock crys- tal, lit up the splendid apartment, while in a neighbour- ing chamber were mirrors and brackets also in rock crystal, between gorgeous hangings.

Hundreds of great candelabra and candlesticks of silver heightened the 1 Lamberti, Mem. Decree of May 6, Decree of March 20, I heard the Nuncio say, ' Why, this is a lodging for a king. A new but striking device was invented, namely, to make the gon- doliers line the entrance from the steps of the water door to the great staircase, with huge flambeaux in their hands, standing there motionless till the close of the function ; on the staircase itself the grooms fulfilled the same duty, and thus, besides making a brave show in themselves, they amply lighted the approach to the great hall without having to run up and down with lights, as is usual.

Paolina Badoer Mocenigo, who selected the clothes, makes mention of gold and silver brocades, laces, and embroidery. Here jewels are not mentioned, but in the note of the property of another Mocenigo bride, a Contarini, we find a brilliants, weighing grains; pearls, weighing carats; 54 emeralds, weighing 42 carats; and rubies.

Molmenti, La Dogaressa di Venezia, p. For further details of the luxury lavished on patrician weddings, see Appendix, Doc. B, the Registro di tulte le spese occorse per I'allestimento di S. The following document, which we give in the original, is also curious: Spese per la Fonzione de' Sponsali del N.

Marin Zorzi con la N. Contarina Barbarigo September 26, Pieuano per le Candelle L. Rocco per spesa di Porto e recognizione delli n. Sposi sotto li Cussini per recogi- zione ai Rd. On Sunday the bride was brought to the Mocenigo palace at San Stae, about the hour of dinner, accompanied by all the ladies of the Grimani family and received by all the ladies of the Mocenigo family ; and all, with their attendant gentlemen, were entertained at a splendid banquet.

Mocenigo, Lettere del cappellano ducale April, These verses, in which " certain cultured swans of Italy " describe the dress of a young girl on her wedding day, give us a good idea of the times, the fashions, and the customs.

As the cost of weddings went up, so did the amount of the dowry. Sister Arcangela Tarabotti, writing about the middle of the Seicento and speaking of the dowers of the wealthy middle class, which at that time usually ran to about one thousand ducats, 1 declares that " a woman is a cross no one adores unless well "gilded.

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